Historical background of computers, Basic Computer Science

Historical Background

The brief history of the growth of computers is given below:

  1. Abacus:  It was the first mechanical device developed approximately 3,000 years ago, it consists of beads that can slide on wires. Wires represent columns. Right most column is for units, the next is for tens and so on. Various numbers can be represented by pushing appropriate beads. This device could perform simple additions and subtractions.
  2. Pascal Calculating Machine:  In 1642, Pascal devised a calculating machine for calculations. This consisted of a series of wheels having digits of zero to nine around the circumference.
  3. Jacquard Card: This utilized the concept of cards with punched holes. This was used for weaving patterns into fabric using cards with punched holes to guide the warp threads on a loom. This was invented in 1801 by Joseph Marie Jacquard.
  4. Analytical Engine:  In 1833, Charles Babbage developed the concepts for an analytical engine which could perform arithmetic functions on data, reading in from punched cards.
  5. Punched Card: In 1890, Herman Hollerith successfully devised electrical tabulating equipment. A coding scheme which would be punched into cards to represent data was devised by him. Hollerith coding system is used widely even today in the punched card equipment.
  6. Mark-1: Mark-1 was the first general purpose computer developed by Prof. Howard Aiken. It consisted of telephone relays and rotating mechanical wheels. Sequence of instructions were given using a paper tape.
  7. ENIAC: In 1946, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was developed. It was a large machine containing 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 30 tons, occupied 1,500 sq. ft. space and a small memory of 20 accumulators each capable of storing 10 digits. It did in 1 day what once took 300 days to perform.
  8. UNIVAC: The World’s first commercial data processing machine UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) of 1951, made by Remington Rand Corporation was installed for and used by the US Bureau of Census. It was used 24 hours a day for 12 years, and also is well known for having predicted the victory of President Dwight Eisenhower in the 1952 elections of the US, thus exposing to the general public the uses and capabilities of electronic computer.

 

Over the last years, the computer technology has been significantly developing. There has been tremendous reduction in size while storage capacity, speed and reliability have been increasing. 

Posted Date: 9/14/2012 5:02:44 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Historical background of computers, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Historical background of computers, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Historical background of computers Discussions

Write discussion on Historical background of computers
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
The primary step is to start the Debug; this step only consists of typing debug [Enter] on the operative system on time. the "a" (assemble) command is used To assemble a program on

Optical disk storage and cd - ROM: Optical disk storage is relatively new alternative to magnetic storage. Digital data is burnt into the surface of a plastic disk coated with

Question 1 Write a long note on the security features of Windows XP Question 2 Write a long note on computer peripherals, briefly describing some of the devices Question

General Considerations for Search If we may specify the starting state, the operators and the goal check for a search problem, then we know from where to start, how to move and

what is meant by deliverable in strus base applications

Microcontroller: A highly integrated microprocessor designed specifically for use in embedded systems. Microcontrollers typically includes an integrated CPU, memory (a small amount

tell me formulas

explain the steps to form a colourful card

Interpreter: An interpreter is a program that translates each statement in the programming language into machine code and runs it.  Such an arrangement means that to run the

The use of manage files very much facilitates the creation of files and programmer can focus on other aspects of the programming lacking worrying on details which can be handled by