Historical background of computers, Basic Computer Science

Historical Background

The brief history of the growth of computers is given below:

  1. Abacus:  It was the first mechanical device developed approximately 3,000 years ago, it consists of beads that can slide on wires. Wires represent columns. Right most column is for units, the next is for tens and so on. Various numbers can be represented by pushing appropriate beads. This device could perform simple additions and subtractions.
  2. Pascal Calculating Machine:  In 1642, Pascal devised a calculating machine for calculations. This consisted of a series of wheels having digits of zero to nine around the circumference.
  3. Jacquard Card: This utilized the concept of cards with punched holes. This was used for weaving patterns into fabric using cards with punched holes to guide the warp threads on a loom. This was invented in 1801 by Joseph Marie Jacquard.
  4. Analytical Engine:  In 1833, Charles Babbage developed the concepts for an analytical engine which could perform arithmetic functions on data, reading in from punched cards.
  5. Punched Card: In 1890, Herman Hollerith successfully devised electrical tabulating equipment. A coding scheme which would be punched into cards to represent data was devised by him. Hollerith coding system is used widely even today in the punched card equipment.
  6. Mark-1: Mark-1 was the first general purpose computer developed by Prof. Howard Aiken. It consisted of telephone relays and rotating mechanical wheels. Sequence of instructions were given using a paper tape.
  7. ENIAC: In 1946, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was developed. It was a large machine containing 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 30 tons, occupied 1,500 sq. ft. space and a small memory of 20 accumulators each capable of storing 10 digits. It did in 1 day what once took 300 days to perform.
  8. UNIVAC: The World’s first commercial data processing machine UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) of 1951, made by Remington Rand Corporation was installed for and used by the US Bureau of Census. It was used 24 hours a day for 12 years, and also is well known for having predicted the victory of President Dwight Eisenhower in the 1952 elections of the US, thus exposing to the general public the uses and capabilities of electronic computer.

 

Over the last years, the computer technology has been significantly developing. There has been tremendous reduction in size while storage capacity, speed and reliability have been increasing. 

Posted Date: 9/14/2012 5:02:44 AM | Location : United States






Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
#questionWrite a program to find the area under the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b, integrate y = f(x) between the limits of a and b. The area under a curve between two poi

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM): The RAM-type memory will allow data to be written into it, as well as read from it. With very few exceptions, RAMS lose their contents when the powe

Systems Life Cycle Approach Systems Analysis and Design follows a life cycle for development, as shown below. Brief discussion on this approach is given here: Figure

Problem When a data is sent across the network it is encrypted and arranged in a way that even if there is a diversion in the flow of data should not leak the data. At the rece


explain CAI pitfalls

I have an account in my www.itlab.com and i have a test and it should do tonight, so do you have any one to help me and do this test and it is about excel

Two competing architectures were developed for improving the architecture of the central processing unit, and different processors are conventional to each one. Both had their powe

QUESTION (a) Give the representation of a queue as an abstract data type. (b) What is a priority queue? Give two types of priority queues. (c) The following program does

Input unit: These are used to read data and transfer to primary memory contained in CPU through keyboard or floppy disk or mouse etc. Central Processing Unit (CPU): This consists o