Hepatitis, Biology


Hepatitis is defined as degenerative/ inflammatory processes of the liver. The clinical manifestations associated with hepatic dysfunctions results from impairment in the maintenance of sugar levels, formation of plasma proteins, formation and excretion of bile salts and excretion of bile pigments, formation of prothrombin and detoxification and excretion of toxic substances including photodynamic substances.

Etiology: Depending on the etiology, liver dysfunction may be termed toxic hepatitis, infectious hepatitis, nutritional hepatitis, congestive hepatitis and parasitic hepatitis. Toxic hepatitis is caused by inorganic poisons like copper, arsenic, phosphorus, and organic poisons like carbon tetrachloride, hexachlorethane and chloroform. Poisonous plants like Lantana camara, and fungi Aspergillus flavus also cause hepatitis. Infectious hepatitis is caused by Chlamydia sp., Histoplasma or Salmonella sp. Nutritional hepatitis occurs due to methionine deficiency but is not very common in farm animals. Vitamin E and selenium deficiency also lead to hepatitis. Cobalt deficiency is a common cause of hepatitis in sheep. Congestive hepatitis occurs due to the congestive heart failure. Parasitic hepatitis is caused by liver fluke infestation and migrating larvae of Ascaris sp.

Clinical signs: Hepatitis is manifested by depression or excitement, anorexia to inappetance, jaundice, diarrhoea or constipation, muscular weakness, abdominal pain, ascites, photosensitization, haemorrhagic diathesis and recumbency. Nervous signs include head pressing, dummy syndrome and arching of back.

Diagnosis: Hepatitis is diagnosed by palpation, percussion, biopsy, and liver function tests including estimation of bile pigment level in urine and serum. Galactose tolerance test is done to evaluate carbohydrate metabolism. Enzyme function tests include analysis of AST (alanine animotransferase), SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), LDH (lactose dehydrogenase), argnisase and ALP (alkaline phosphatase). Measurement of icterus index is done to ascertain the severity of jaundice. Organic anion dye clearance/ retention test, glucose tolerance test, measurement of protein profile, radiological and liver biopsy examinations are also useful in its diagnosis. In canines, it can be detected by measuring levels of uric acid and blood ammonia.

Treatment: Protein and protein hydrolysate should be avoided. Diet should be rich in carbohydrate and low in protein and fat. Neomycin, chlorotetracycline and calcium can be given orally. Liver tonics may be given continuously either by oral route or by intramuscular injection.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:03:16 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Hepatitis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Hepatitis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Hepatitis Discussions

Write discussion on Hepatitis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Explain Phenylephine and Methoxamine in amyl nitrite ? They have opposing effects to amyl nitrite as they increase the systemic BP. phenylephine due to its shorter duration of

Primary Production - Ecosystem Energy accumulated by plants during photosynthesis is called production or more specifically primary production. It is the first and the basic f

Q. What are the three kinds of respiration in which the circulatory system transports gases? The circulatory system has an important role in branchial respiration, cutaneous re

Oxidation Some enzymes which have the sulfhydryl (-SH)  group in  the catalytic site are very sensitive to oxidation. Due  to oxidation of  the  -SH  group  by  aerial  oxygen

1- Describe the function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions ? 2-Descride enzymes ' role in reducign activation energy?

Ecosystems are so varied in form and structure that whatever has a distinct community of its own, can be called an ecosystem eg. A crop field, grass land, barks etc. all the ecosys

Biochemical Changes Many workers have tried to follow the biochemical changes that precede flowering and result in meristems which give rise to flowers instead of vegetative s

TYPE S -   There are present three types of muscle fibres:   1.      Striped or striated or skeletal or voluntary muscles.   2.      Unstriped or non-striated o