Halogens, Chemistry

 

HALOGENS

The halogen group (17) is the biggest electronegative in the periodic table, and all elements readily form halide ions X-. Trends in chemistry resemble those collect in other groups. Fluorine is minimized to an octet of valence electrons. It is the biggest reactive and electronegative of all elements and usually (as with oxygen) brings out the highest oxidation state in other elements: as where no corresponding oxide is known include AuF5 and PtF6.

 

Cl and F are moderately abundant elements, principal sources being halite NaCl and fluorite CaF2, from which the very electronegative elements are produce by electrolysis. Bromine is mainly collect by oxidation of Br- found in salt water; iodine performs as iodates such as Ca(IO3)2. Astatine is radioactive and only minute amounts are present in nature.

 

Chlorine is used (as ClO2 and ClO-) in bleaches and is an important industrial chemical, other major need (as with all the halogens) being in the builder of halogenated organic compounds. The elements form diatomic molecules, Cl2 and F2 being gases at normal pressure and temperature, Br2 liquid and I2 solid. They combine directly with most other elements and are great oxidizing agents, although reactivity declines down the group.

 

The redox behavior is widely pH dependent but is also influenced by kinetic factors. It may be seen that Br2 and Cl2 disproportionate in alkaline solution. The thermodynamically expected products are X- and but the hypochlorite ion ClO- is build in cold conditions, and further disproportionation performs on heating.

 

 

1321_Untitled.png

 

Fig.  Frost diagrams for the halogens in aqueous solution at pH=0 (a) and pH=14 (b). X represents any halogen, except F for positive oxidation

states.

 

 

The perhalic acids and their anions are rigid oxidizing agents, normally which is not thermodynamically stable in aqueous solution. They do have relievable kinetic stability. Organometallic cations or perchlorates of organic are very dangerous as they can appear stable, but can explode unpredictably with full force.

 

 

Posted Date: 7/23/2012 7:16:05 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Halogens, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Halogens, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Halogens Discussions

Write discussion on Halogens
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
CRYSTAL FIELD THEORY

how to count two oxidation no. of Cl in Ca(OCl)Cl?

Block diagram of atomic fluorescence spectrometry: The instrumentation for AFS consists of atom reservoir that might be a flame or a furnace etc., a basic source emitting the

Q. Explain about Pyrometallurgy? Tri pyrometallurgy, the concentrated ore is heated up to a high temperature and reduction is done with a appropriate reducing agent. The differ

Q. What do you mean by Isotopes? Isotopes and mass number although all atoms of an element have the same number of protons most elements have atoms with different numbers of ne

Calculations of Volumetric analysis The subsequent points should be kept in mind while making calculations of volumetric exercises. (i) 1g equivalent mass of a substance car

Classification of polymers - Synthetic polymers The polymers that are prepared in the laboratories are known as synthetic polymers. These are as well described as manmade polym



Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms. For example, in diatomic nitrogen N≡N the bond order is 3, while in acetylene H-C≡C-H the bond order between the