Glanders, Biology

Glanders
The glanders is caused by Burkholderia mallei (previously known as Malleomyces mallei) and it is a serious contagious disease of equines. Infected equidae are the reservoir. The causative organisms are true parasite because these are unable to survive in nature for long periods without its host. B. mallei is a gram-negative, non-motile aerobic rod and it produces a carbohydrate capsule. B. malleii is diffetrentiated from B. pseudomallei by being non-motile organisms. B. pseudomallei causes “meliodosis”. B. mallei can be grown on media containing glycerol or blood. It does not grow on MacConkey agar or at 420C.


Glanders is zoonotic, and is transmitted to humans by direct contact with sick animals or infectious materials or through ingestion of glandered meat. Cases of human-to- human transmission have been reported.


Transmission:
The disease is introduced into equine populations by infected animals. Ingestion of B. malleii, which is present in high numbers in secretions of infected individuals, is the most common route of infection. Skin invasion and inhalation are regarded as minor routes of transmission. Use of common utensils or watering troughs may transmit the disease.


Symptoms: Glanders usually manifests as a chronic infection in horses, and infected animals may survive for several years. Disease occurs in nasal, cutaneous (farcy), and pulmonary forms, all of which may occur simultaneously in one animals. Clinical signs include catarrhal nasal discharge from one or both nostrils, gray to yellow nodules on the upper respiratory mucous membranes, submaxillary lymphadenopathy, dyspnea, weight loss and nodules and or ulcers along the cutaneous lymphatics.


Diagnosis: Bacteriological culture of nodular contents on blood or glycerol agar is useful. Guinea pigs and hamsters are highly susceptible to fatal infection with virulent strains. Serologically, glander is diagnosed by complement fixation test (CFT), ELISA, direct hemagglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis using aqueous bacterial extract as antigen. Indirect fluorescent antibody test may be used. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for B. mallei can easily detect and identify B. mallei infection. Male guinea pigs injcted intraperitonealy with infected clinical material develop orchitis if the inoculum contains B. mallei, the so called Strauss reaction (the exudative swelling of the scrotum in male hamsters and guinea pigs upon subcutaneous or intraperitoneal inoculation of Pseudomonas mallei). Mallein testing by intradermal inoculation of the antigen is recommended for diagnosing a case of glanders.


Treatment and control: Horses are screened using mallein inoculated intradermal palpebrally. The reactors may be destroyed. The mallein is manufactured and supplied by Division of Biological Products, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (Utar Pradesh) for its supply.  B. mallei is usually sensitive to tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, gentamicin and sulfonamides. These antimicrobial agents may be used to treat human cases, however, treating infected equids is discouraged. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for glanders.

Posted Date: 9/17/2012 6:39:49 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Glanders, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Glanders, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Glanders Discussions

Write discussion on Glanders
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
In glycoproteins, two main parts of oligosaccharide linkages exist: a) An O-linked oligosaccharides attached to the protein by O-glycosidic bonds, to the OH groups of serine or

Exstrophy of the Bladder This is the most common major congenital defect of lower urinary and genital tract. This is found more frequently in males than in females. Exstr

Describe the Timing of Surgery and Intervention For Various Congenital Heart Diseases ? The timing of surgical or trans-catheter intervention for congenital heart disease (CHD

Q. What is hematosis? In humans where does hematosis occur? Hematosis is the oxygenation of the blood, venous blood (oxygen-poor) after hematosis is transformed into arterial b

Toxoplasma cycles between its rodent and feline hosts, living out different phases of its existence in each. What is the scientific means about the cat and mouse?

Cell movements are movements performed by cell structures, like the movements of cilia and flagella, the pseudopod movements (in amoeba, macrophages, etc.), the cyclosis of the cyt

Improper Implant Design Out of the plethora of implant systems available it is the responsibility of the clinician to select the most suitable. In comparison of the straight cy

cells are the smallest structural units of the living matter and is capable of functioning independently.

why we call leech as sangivorous

Q. Nematode identity card. How are nematodes characterized according to examples of representing beings, type of symmetry basic morphology, , germ layers and coelom, digestive syst