Genetic engineering, Science

Genetic Engineering:

The modem biotechnology revolution is based on the understanding and manipulation of the structure of DNA. DNA is a complex organic molecule that directs  the synthesis of  proteins in all living organisms. Thus, it controls the physical structure,  growth, reproduction and function of all living beings. The programme for controlling  protein synthesis is coded in  the chemical structure of DNA. The discovery of  the code, and the synthesis of DNA in test tubes, were important milestones in genetic engineering. However, the foundation of genetic engineering was laid by  the discovery,  that QNA suppljed from outside is accepted by micro-organisms. DNA thus inserted into the cell  en  from a micro-organism, enables the cells to make the proteins specified in  the codes of  the inserted DNA. These new cells can be cultivated or cloned, until a significant number of cells are available.  to produce specific, desired protein molecules. -3 However,  this is not so easily done. When a foreign DNA molecule enters a cell, spcclal enzymes, called restriction enzymes,  rapidly destroy  it  This problem was solved by  the discovery of the fact that small rings of DNA other than the main DNA strands exist in the cells of bacteria. These circular DNA molecules are called plasmids. A technique was developed to insert foreign DNA fragments  into plasmids taken out of  the cells. This is known as gene splicing  and plasmid becomes a vehicle or a vector.

Once the foreign DNA is  joined  to the plasmids, md  inserted back in the host cell, the restriction enzymes fail to destroy it. When the cell reproduces, the foreign DNA .is also replicated. When the cell carries on its normal functions, the synthetic DNA in the plasmid directs the manufacture of  the protein coded in i~. Thus, through genetic engineering  tethniques, it is possible to introduce a foreign DNA into a host cell and synthesise  any desired protein. Large quantities of scarce biologically significant proteins which are not easily available from natural sources can be manufactured in'this manner. For example,  insulin needed by diabetic  patients can now  be produced on a large scale using this technique. Just as cattle are bred for specific functions like high milk yield, or pulling heavy loads, now-a-days scientists breed bacteria for carrying out special functions. By  selecting suitable bacteria, and using genetic engineering  techniques, new variel of bacteria which can eat man-made artificial products like plastics are being developed. Otherwise plastic materials, discarded and  thrown in garbage, are hard to get rid off. These special bacteria are affectionately called 'Bugs'.  

Posted Date: 9/29/2012 2:21:47 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Genetic engineering, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Genetic engineering, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Genetic engineering Discussions

Write discussion on Genetic engineering
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
what is Anemia?

Explain Adventitia or Outer Covering In the thorax, the outer covering is made up of loose fibrous tissue and in the abdomen, the organs are covered through a serous membrane k

Please complete this assignment in Microsoft Word and turn it in as an attachment. Show all work to receive full credit. 1. Given e sw = 57mb and r = 0.5, find T LCL . 2

what is inside a volcano

why is oxygen is important to plants?

lable the direction of increasing frequency and the direction of increasing wavelength on the em.

Explain the Pontine Centre The rhythmic discharge of the neurons in the respiratory centre is modified by centers in the pons (apneustic and pneumotaxic centre). Activity in th

what is tetrology of fallut? write down the emroyological basis of this condition?

How big is the Earth? The Earth size : is neither the largest nor smallest planet in our solar system. It is the largest of the non-gaseous planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, and

What are the ratios allowed for three year olds and Child Care Centers in Colorado and what is the citation of the rules that addresses ratios?