Fowl spirochaetosis, Biology

Fowl spirochaetosis

The causal agent Borrelia anserina is a spiral-shaped organism about 8-30 um in length but commonly 14-15 um long and 0-3 um wide. The organisms are actively motile with serpentile movements. The organisms can be seen by staining with Leishman’s or Giemsa methods or a droplet of blood in dark ground illumination of the microscope. The organism can be grown in developing chicken embryo or a susceptible fowl. There is evidence of existence of different antigenic groups. The organism infects chicks, geese, turkeys, ducks, sparrows and other species of birds.

The organism is transmitted from one bird to another by fowl tick, Argas persicus, pigeon tick and occasionally by red raise and rarely by mosquitoes. The disease in a flock, is introduced by infected poultry brought on the farm or possibly from wild birds. During initial stages of infection a septicaemia develops when large number of spirochaetes are present in peripheral blood and ingested by the vectors.

The incubation period following the tick bite varies from 4 to 10 days.The body temperature rises to 430 - 440 C, and is accompanied by depression, cyanosis of comb and wattles followed by jaundice. The faeces are watery, inconsistent and greenish. The mortality rate may be 100 %. The spleen is enlarged with mottled appearance and areas of necrosis.

Diagnosis and control: The disease can be diagnosed by observing the organisms in blood smears or sections of the spleen, liver and kidneys. Live organisms in blood from diseased birds can be seen under dark ground or phase contrast microscopy.

Treatment: Arsenical preparations have been effective when given promptly. Penicillin is very effective at a dose of 15,000 units for an average sized bird. Eradication of ectoparasites, particularly ticks from poultry houses, and hygienic conditions are essential for the control of the disease.

Vaccines derived from haemolysed blood or tissue from infected birds and killed with formal saline or phenol, or from formalinized chicken embryos are effective for at least 6 months.

Posted Date: 9/17/2012 6:36:45 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Fowl spirochaetosis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Fowl spirochaetosis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Fowl spirochaetosis Discussions

Write discussion on Fowl spirochaetosis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Quantification of Pulmonary Stenosis :   Quantification by ECHO By Valve area Mild                 > 1.5 cm 2 Moderate         0.5-1.5 cm 2 Severe

Define the working of pH Meter? The pH of a solution, we know, measures the degree of acidity or alkalinity relative to the ionization of water sample. A pH meter is a sophisti

The holoenzyme is denatured by heat at very high temperature. It is found that two polypeptides, although denatured, contains chains that remain together as a unit, while two other

Cells regulate their level of activity by regulating the amount of proteins present in the cell at any given time, so an up regulation of enzymes would be expected to A. increase t

Explain nutritional science Dietitians are in a 'helping' profession because the services they provide are beneficial to individuals  and society and dedicated to improving th

Single Cell Proteins (SCP)  The term SCP was coined by Prof. Caroll Wilson (MIT) in 1966. It means the proteins obtained from microbial sources, i.e. algae, fungi, bacteria,

If for some reason our goblet cells are non-functional, this will adversely affect: 1. Production of somatostatin 2. Secretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands 3. Matura

Run off Some of the rainfall is soaked into the soil and excess water flows over the land surface along the natural slope of the area. Run off is the main source of water for l

Chief Complaint and Patient's Expectations It is extremely vital to know what the patient really wants. 1. The chief complaint should be recorded in patient's own words as f