Fowl spirochaetosis, Biology

Fowl spirochaetosis

The causal agent Borrelia anserina is a spiral-shaped organism about 8-30 um in length but commonly 14-15 um long and 0-3 um wide. The organisms are actively motile with serpentile movements. The organisms can be seen by staining with Leishman’s or Giemsa methods or a droplet of blood in dark ground illumination of the microscope. The organism can be grown in developing chicken embryo or a susceptible fowl. There is evidence of existence of different antigenic groups. The organism infects chicks, geese, turkeys, ducks, sparrows and other species of birds.


Transmission:
The organism is transmitted from one bird to another by fowl tick, Argas persicus, pigeon tick and occasionally by red raise and rarely by mosquitoes. The disease in a flock, is introduced by infected poultry brought on the farm or possibly from wild birds. During initial stages of infection a septicaemia develops when large number of spirochaetes are present in peripheral blood and ingested by the vectors.


Symptoms:
The incubation period following the tick bite varies from 4 to 10 days.The body temperature rises to 430 - 440 C, and is accompanied by depression, cyanosis of comb and wattles followed by jaundice. The faeces are watery, inconsistent and greenish. The mortality rate may be 100 %. The spleen is enlarged with mottled appearance and areas of necrosis.


Diagnosis and control: The disease can be diagnosed by observing the organisms in blood smears or sections of the spleen, liver and kidneys. Live organisms in blood from diseased birds can be seen under dark ground or phase contrast microscopy.


Treatment: Arsenical preparations have been effective when given promptly. Penicillin is very effective at a dose of 15,000 units for an average sized bird. Eradication of ectoparasites, particularly ticks from poultry houses, and hygienic conditions are essential for the control of the disease.


Prophylaxis:
Vaccines derived from haemolysed blood or tissue from infected birds and killed with formal saline or phenol, or from formalinized chicken embryos are effective for at least 6 months.

Posted Date: 9/17/2012 6:36:45 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Fowl spirochaetosis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Fowl spirochaetosis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Fowl spirochaetosis Discussions

Write discussion on Fowl spirochaetosis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
C h ic k e n infectious anemia (CIA) Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), a member of genus Gyrovirus of the family Circoviridae, is the causative agent of chicken infe

VITAMIN - E Also known as beauty vitamin / tocopherol / antisterlity vitamin . Antioxidant because it inhibits peroxide formation. It stops undesired oxidation. It

African swine fever African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious viral disease of swine and other porcine animals (generally confined to the African continent, part of Weste

The branches of the left coronary artery are  anterio interventricular artery (AIV artery) and circumflex artery which is considered to be the continuation of the left coronary art


Nutrient Cycles All ecosystems have certain common basic features of structure and function. They all have living and non-living components through which there is a flow of en

Q. Which are the subproducts of the photochemical phase that are essential for the chemical stage of photosynthesis? The chemical stage of photosynthesis depends on ATP and NAD

Why do vestigial structures persist in modern organisms? Explain the evidence that indicates that species evolve over time. The environment will not select for or against

explain the digestive system with slides because i want to prepare this topic for CSS examination

What organisms make starch? What is it used for? What organisms make glycogen? What is it used for?