Formal languages and grammar, Theory of Computation

The universe of strings is a very useful medium for the representation of information as long as there exists a function that provides the interpretation for the information carried by the strings. An interpretation is just the contrary of the mapping that a representation provides, that is, an interpretation is a function g from Σ* to D for some alphabet Σ and some set D. The string 111, for instance, can be interpreted as the number one hundred and eleven represented by a decimal string, as the number seven represented by a binary string, and as the number three represented by a unary string.

In general, if Σ is an alphabet and L is a subset of Σ*, then L is said to be a language over Σ, or simply a language if Σ is understood. Each element of L is said to be a sentence or a word or a stringof the language.

"Example- {0, 11, 001}, {ε, 10}, and {0, 1}* are subsets of {0, 1}*, and so they are languages over the alphabet {0, 1}.

The empty set Ø and the set {ε} are languages over every alphabet. Ø is a language that contains no string. {ε} is a language that contains just the empty string.

The union of two languages L1 and L2, denoted L1 U  L2, refers to the language that consists of all the strings that are either in L1 or in L2, that is, to { x | x is in L1 or x is in L2 }. The intersection of L1 and L2, denoted L1 ∩  L2, refers to the language that consists of all the strings that are both in L1 and L2, that is, to {x | x is in L1 and in L2}. The complementation of a language L over Σ, or just the complementation of L when Σ is understood, denoted L, refers to the language that consists of all the strings over Σ that are not in L, that is, to { x | x is in Σ* but not in L }".

A set of real values for a problem is called an instance of the problem. So a problem, specifies what an instance is, i.e., what is the input, problem, or output and how the solution is related to the input.

Posted Date: 3/18/2013 1:09:01 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Formal languages and grammar, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Formal languages and grammar, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Formal languages and grammar Discussions

Write discussion on Formal languages and grammar
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
. On July 1, 2010, Harris Co. issued 6,000 bonds at $1,000 each. The bonds paid interest semiannually at 5%. The bonds had a term of 20 years. At the time of issuance, the market r

Automaton (NFA) (with ε-transitions) is a 5-tuple: (Q,Σ, δ, q 0 , F i where Q, Σ, q 0 and F are as in a DFA and T ⊆ Q × Q × (Σ ∪ {ε}). We must also modify the de?nitions of th


We saw earlier that LT is not closed under concatenation. If we think in terms of the LT graphs, recognizing the concatenation of LT languages would seem to require knowing, while

Theorem The class of ?nite languages is a proper subclass of SL. Note that the class of ?nite languages is closed under union and concatenation but SL is not closed under either. N

Explain Theory of Computation ,Overview of DFA,NFA, CFG, PDA, Turing Machine, Regular Language, Context Free Language, Pumping Lemma, Context Sensitive Language, Chomsky Normal For

De?nition Instantaneous Description of an FSA: An instantaneous description (ID) of a FSA A = (Q,Σ, T, q 0 , F) is a pair (q,w) ∈ Q×Σ* , where q the current state and w is the p

It is not hard to see that ε-transitions do not add to the accepting power of the model. The underlying idea is that whenever an ID (q, σ  v) directly computes another (p, v) via

DEGENERATE OF THE INITIAL SOLUTION

proof ogdens lemma .with example i am not able to undestand the meaning of distinguished position .