Food-borne illnesses are serious public health problem. They are associated with the ingestion of contaminated foods by microorganisms and their toxins, marine organisms and their toxins, and chemicals contaminants. Gastrointestinal disturbances like vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain are the most common clinical manifestations. However, nonspecific and neurological symptoms may also occur. Many food and water-borne diseases are well known while some have emerged recently. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and rotaviruses are some important microorganisms causing food- and water-borne infections.