Foetal maceration and mummification
Foetal mummification occurs when the foetus dies in the uterus in the absence of air and bacterial contamination and the cervix remains tightly closed. Foetal emphysema and maceration occurs when the cervix is open and pathogenic bacteria invade the uterus through vagina. Incidences of foetal maceration and mummification are not very common. Foetal maceration follows incomplete abortion, but is not common. The diagnosis is easily made by transrectal palpation. The uterus feels like thick walled and firm, and in advanced cases, crepitation of the foetal bone can be felt. Sometimes there is purulent discharge from the vagina. Prognosis for future breeding is good in foetal mummification if it is treated early by induction of parturition with dexamathasone or prostaglandin. However, prognosis in case of foetal maceration is poor and treatment is not economically viable option.