"He who has left the household life is a lodger beyond the earthly [secular] world, and his ways are cut off from those of other beings. The doctrine by which he lives enables him to understand the woes and impediments that come from having a body, and that by not maintaining the body one terminates woe..." ("A Monk Does Not Bow Down Before a King")
Subject: Addresses the gradual disappearance of dharma. Outward signs no longer referred to inward characteristics.
Occasion: Buddhism needs to be open to radical change. So fit Buddhism to the doctrine of the state= kings must play pivotal role as source of salvation.
Purpose: Monks insist on autonomy of their temples. But rulers gained greater authority and significance in this age of Mo Fa. This is another way to get monks to pull back from worldly values, keep them in isolation, and cut back the growing power of the monasteries.
General Time: 5th century C.E.
"Many people who seek great power have a little bit of monster in their makeup. Those who are drawn to power and believe themselves competent to wield it but are excluded by custom and prejudice, as all women were in traditional China, sometimes will become more monstrous as they thrust themselves forward." (Wills "Empress Wu")
Subject: female ruler
Occasion: Empress Wu, the only woman ruler in China, was very successful and had great power. There can be horrible rumors of her killing her own children.
Purpose: To strip the prejudices against the "women in the household" thoughts. Especially Empress Wu who had the competence and will to rule, there are more horrendous rumors surrounding her, just b/c she was a woman.
General Time: ?