Hydrops amnii (Hydramnios)
Hydramnios is a rare condition. Excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid can be the result of foetal dysgenesis and agenesis. The increase of amniotic fluid is gradual. The cow with hydramnios has pear- shaped abdomen when looked from the back. Incidences of such conditions are more when bison, yak and mithun are crossed with cattle for producing hybrids. Prognosis for future breeding life is good.
Abnormal offspring syndrome (AOS) a negative consequence of transfer of in- vitro produced embryos and somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle and other species is encountered very frequently. Embryos, foetuses, placentae and offspring can be different in morphology and developmental competence compared with those from embryo produced in vivo. The prevalence of hydrallantois is significantly higher in in vitro produced (IVP) pregnancies. Foetal death rate of 24% has been reported in dairy cows pregnant following transfer of IVP embryos. Losses were greater between 50and 80 days than from 80 days to term.
Teratology includes congenital anomalies and foetal monsters. The incidences are rare which make it difficult to study. The examples include freemartins, atresia ani, cleft palate, hydrocephalus, dicephalus, schistosoma reflexum, foetal anasarca and Globosus amorphous.