Factors responsible for transboundary diseases
Factors that affect the entry, establishment and spread of animal diseases include globalization; human population growth; ecosystem diversity; industrial and agricultural chemical pollution; atmospheric composition; species interactions with hosts, predators and competitors and trade and human movements. These factors are not independent of each other and climate change interacts with each of them. In terms of vulnerability and risk analysis, it was found that production of livestock will vary according to their exposure to climatic hazards, such as droughts, floods and extreme temperatures. To understand the contribution of climate change in relation to outbreaks, there is a need to establish benchmarks of current bio-security status; impacts and costs of bio-security indicators.