Factors Affecting to High Technical Losses
Large Scale Rural Electrification
Large scale rural electrification programmed undertaken in the country resulted in long LT lines and extension of distribution network. This was completed without strengthening the back up transmission and sub-transmission system. In practice, distribution lines were extended over long distances to feed loads scattered over large rural areas. This has resulted in high line resistance and, thus, high I2R losses in the line.
Ad-hoc Expansion of the System without Scientific Planning
Distribution systems have been expanded on an adhoc and haphazard basis with the sole objective of giving connections without any scientific planning which has resulted in higher losses.
Too many Transformation Stages
In the Distribution system, the energy is transformed to several intermediate stages before it reaches the consumer. Too many transformation stages gives output in higher component of transformation losses.
Low Power Factor
Due to pumping load in rural areas, and air conditioners, coolers and industrial loads in urban areas, the system has a low power factor that results in higher losses. You know that for a given load, if the Power Factor is low, the current drawn is high. Accordingly, the losses proportional to the square of the current will be higher.
Improper Load Management
Improper management of the load has to be led to over-loading of conductors and transformers in the system causing higher losses.
Distribution Transformers not Located at Load Centre
Often DTRs are not located centrally along with respect to consumers. Thus, the whole length of the distribution network increases and the farthest consumers acquire an extremely low voltage even by a reasonably good voltage level is maintained at the transformers' secondaries. This again leads to higher line losses.
Low Quality of Equipment, Poor Construction and Inadequate Maintenance of Equipment
Poor quality of equipment results in increased technical losses. For instance, the distribution transformers are being manufactured along with scrap steel resulting in substantially higher losses in transformation to distribution voltage. Poor workmanship contributes extensively towards increasing distribution losses. Joints are a source of power loss. Connections to the transformer bushing-stem drop out fuse, isolator, and LT switch cause losses. Therefore, poor construction results in increased losses. Poor workmanship leads to hot spots, equipment failure and interruption in supply. Deteriorated wires and services, that are not timely managed, cause leakages and loss of power.