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Q. Discuss FDM and illustrate how CCITT stndards help in building the base band?
Frequency Division Multiplexing: It is the process of combining numerous information channels by shifting their signals to different frequency groups within spectrum so that they can be transmitted simultaneously over common transmission facility.
Bandwidth of a telephone speech signal is rather less than 4 kHz. While the available bandwidth on unloaded cables pair, is well above 100 kHz. It is consequently possible, using modulation techniques, to divide up cable bandwidth so that anumber of telephone speech paths can be carried simultaneously along a single cable pair. Normal arrangement comprises 24 telephone channels per cable pair, modulation into 24 channels being carried out in two stages. In first stage, 12 channels are multiplexed together to form what is commonly termed as a basic group. Basic group arrangement is demonstrated in figure. Each of the 12 telephone signals are single side-band amplitude modulated on to carriers spaced at 4 kHz intervals from 64 kHz to 108 kHz. Lower side-band (LSB) is used in each case. 12 base-band signals are therefore translated into frequency band from 60 kHz 108 kHz as shown. Block diagram for channel translating equipment is given in figure. To form a 24-channel system, to basic groups are taken together. One basic group (B) is transmitted directly as it stands. Other basic group (A) is amplitude modulated on to a carrier are 120 kHz and lower side-band is taken so as to occupy frequency range from 12 kHz to 60 kHz as demonstrated in figure by using two stages of modulation for basic group A, it is probable to reduce the physical size of component required for LSB filters of the figureas the lowest cut- off frequency required is at 64 kHz rather than 12 kHz if the whole block of 24 channels were assembled together in one stage of modulation.
Inductive Logic Programming : Now here having studied a non-symbolic approach to machine learning on Artificial Neural Networks then we return to a logical approach, namely In
An audiomessage is band-limited to 15 kHz, sampled at twice the Nyquist rate, and encoded by a 12-bit natural binary code that corresponds to Lb = 212 = 4096 levels, all of which s
Consider a colloidal suspension of latex particles confined between two plates. The plates are charged, so there is an electric potential difference V between them (as shown). The
Q. Two identical junction diodes whose volt-ampere relation is given by Equation in which IS = 0.1 µA, VT = 25 mV, and η = 2, are connected as shown in Figure. Determine the curren
Structure and use of PNP transistor: The figure opposite is a schematic presentation of a PNP transistor related to two voltage sources. To construct the transistor conduct ap
Dry type 10KVA-3ph-440/230v Dyn11. If we decide to wound above such specification, what current to be taken i.e. phase current or line current 7.57A or 13.12A
what does actually feredy law wants to proof.
draw alogic diagramto implement F=ABCDE using only 3 inputAND gates
Assembly Language Programming In this chapter we will discuss programming in assembly language and machine language. The difference in machine assembly and high
Q. (a) Draw the logic diagram of the enabled D latch using only NAND gates. (b) Complete the timing diagram of Figure (a) of theDlatchwhose block diagram and truth table are giv
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