Execution of a machine instruction:
Execution of a machine instruction on modern processors involves a complex sequence of operations with multiple cycles. One instruction cycle typically involves Fetch, Decode, Execute and Write back cycles. During Fetch cycle the instruction is fetched from memory. During Decode cycle the instruction is processed by the control unit of the CPU, which generate the set of micro-operations and timing signals required to execute the instruction. The micro-operations are then executed during Execute cycle to complete the instruction and any results generated are then written back to memory during Write back cycle. An instruction cycle may also involve one or more operand fetch cycles. The control unit is responsible for overall control and coordination of instruction execution. It generates the set of micro-operations either through a hard wired logic or with the help of micro program sequencer. Executing a program therefore involves executing a large number of machine instructions, where every machine instruction execution requires executing several micro-operations.