Discount bond (5 yr. bond with 10% coupon) (expected rate yield at 12%)
Premium bond (expected yield at 7.8%)
Reasons for price changes of a bond:
Change in the yield requirement of the issuer due to changes in the quality of credit of the issuer.
Change in the price as the bond approaches maturity in case of premium or discount bond.
Change in the price because of change in the yields of comparable bonds/securities.
While computing the bond pricing, the following assumptions are made:
Cash flows are known.
Coupon payment annually/semi-annually is made at exact period.
Required yield can be estimated.
One rate is used to discount all cash flows, i.e., with required yield rate.
The following cash factors are to be considered:
For callable bonds, cash flows cannot be certain. The investment decisions of the issuer depend on interest rate movements and other factors.
It is not possible to determine the appropriate yields and it need not be a single rate for all the future cash flows.