The causes of diarrhoea can be classified as follows:
i) Infectious causes
Viral : Rota virus, Norwalk and allied viruses, Enterovirus, Influenza virus, measles virus.
Bacterial : E.coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter Jeguni, Yersinia enterocolitice, Clostridium dificile, Aeromoneus hydrophilia, Vibrio parahemolyticus, klebsella.
Parasities : Giardia Larnbila, Entarnoeba histolytica, Canadida albicans, Trichuris, Trichuria, Strongyliods stercoralis.
Fungi : Canadida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum
ii) Drugs : Antibiotics
iii) Diet : Food poisoning, Food allergy, Overeating, Starvation
iv) Necrotising enterocolitis
v) Other causes : Intussusception, Uremic syndrome, Congenital aganglionic . mgacolon, Neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome.
- Diarrhoea is more frequent in children under the age of 2 years with peak incidence between six to nine months.
- More common in summer months with maximum frequency in rainy season.
- Children from poor families and poor sanitary environment. Poorly nourished children and also more in artificially fed children than breast fed children.
- Teething does not predispose the child to diarrhoea but during tooth eruption child puts dirty finger and soiled object in mouth which leads to diarrhoea.
Thus introducing infection in gastrointestinal tract