identify a sphere along with a light source above it; hence its lower half will not be illuminated. In practice in a actual scene this lower half would be partially illuminated through light which had been reflected from the other objects. This consequence is approximated in a local illumination model via adding a term to estimate this general light such is 'bouncing' around the scene. This term is termed as the ambient reflection term and is modeled through a constant term. Again the amount of ambient light reflected is dependent upon the properties of the surface. This is to be noticed that if Ia → intensity of ambient light; Ka → property of material as Ambient reflection coefficient ka , 0 < ka < 1 then consequential reflected light is a constant for all surfaces individual of viewing direction and spatial orientation of surface.
Ia → Intensity of ambient light.
I → Intensity of reflected ambient light
This is assumed here Ia ≠ 0 (Q Ia = 0 ⇒ such does not exit any light)
I a Ia ⇒ I = Ka Ia;
Ka → constant; 0 ≤ Ka ≤ 1
Ka = 0 ⇒ object has absorbed the entire incident light. Ka = 1 ⇒ object has reflected the entire incident light.
0 ≤Ka ≤1 ⇒ object has reflected several and absorbed light.