The Biological Catalysis Enzyme:
Biological catalysis are called enzyme. An enzyme can be defined as an organic substance that tremendously accelerates a chemical reaction without changing its direction and is neither used up nor permanently altered in the rection so that it can be sued again and again ,Enzyme are dtudied under the branch enzymology .First indication of the occurrence of enzymes in living systems was given by Kirchhoff 1815 who prepared a wheat extract that could catalyze transformation of starch into sugar. There after Louis pastier 1860 discovered that the fermentation of foodstuffs can be brought about by yeast cells .Kuhne 1878 discovered that in fact a ferment present in yeast cell. Brings about this fermentation .He called this ferment an enzyme presumably about 3000 kinds of enzymes are required to catalyze metavolic reaction in an ordinary cell. All ezymes are synthesized within the cell itself under genic control, Scientists have so far identified about 2000 enzymes . They have however ascertained that these enzyme can catalyze reactions even outside the cells . A few hundred enzymes have been extracted in pure form and pure crystals of many of these have been prepared. Buchner1897 was first to prepare a pure extract of zymase enzyme from yeast. The Noble laureate sumner 1926 first prepared pure crystals of urease enzyme from jack beans Northrop 1930 gastric and pancreatic juices .He also postulated that chemically all enzymes are proteins.