The postmodernism argues that organizations are social organisms in which individuals and groups construct their own views of reality based on their own perceptions of the world and their place in it. (1) It interprets that there does not exist two such similar organizations in the world. In this context, human factor demonstrates a fundamental shift for any organization in the importance of critical economic production factors to sustain in the market.
The organizations are also getting complex systems that to survive, need to operate at the edge of chaos and have to respond continuously to changes in their environment through just such a process of spontaneous self-organising change. (1) Already late 1800 and early 1900, the organization theory is constructed by several experts that organizations consist of a group of people who are motivated by money. By the middle of 1900, scientific management dominates the organization theory that, in return, creates job design structure. The basic tenets of job design are to be fitted to the human needs and tasks are controlled and managed. The organization theory begins to design the jobs, creates structure and staff motivation and then it evolves into the human relation, flexibility and social-cultural excellence. The introduction of DELTA Meta Architecture is seemed to manoeuvre the recent organizational theory.
Organizational theory is developed in relation with the US industrial development and application of political policies. Although organizations have served their social activities to only a limited number of stakeholders by early 1900, however, upon an arrival of complexity theory, organizations could not only define their best practice in order to improve organizational behaviour but also the surrounding environment require the transformation of their structure, design and operational behaviour. When organizations are small enough for management to communicate directly to the important stakeholders such as employees, customers and market, organizations can develop and improve their operation in accordance of own choice of theory. However, the current organizations should respond quickly to the rapid changing enormous external factors and technological advancement to gain the competitive positioning. Organizations need to "transform" continuously.
3. Objectives of findings
Globalisation, economic fluctuation, price competition, market requirement, internal competence and inter-company culture are all living and changing aspects. Technological development and uncertainty of product life cycle contributes accelerating to produce sophisticated management theories. Quicker responsiveness of these new requirements, organizations need to transform their shape suit to the surrounding and, basically to survive.
This paper attempts to discuss of evolution of organization theories over the decades, and understand leadership and management science coping with major changes throughout examining these questions.
- What are the notions of development and change? How can the concepts be understood separately and in relation to each other?
- What are the notions of enterprise development and change? How can the concepts be understood separately and in relation to each other?
- What levels of organizational and technological change are high lighted? What kind of leveling is suggested? Are there alternative levels based on for instance type of organization, goal or the content of change?
- What are the notions of management i.e. management of the enterprise and change management? How can the concepts be understood separately and in relation to each other?