Emergence of urban societies, Science

Emergence of Urban Societies:

 The writings of this period also give us a picture of  the social conditions. The social structure was undergoing radical changes at this time, from the tribal to a more structured urban society. By  the time the Aryans started their eastward progress, a new sort of tribal slave, the 'dasa' was being used for extra labour. A highly developed priesthood, specialising  in sacrificial rites. combining Aryan and pre-Aryan practices, was also coming into being. Most importantly,  however, commodity production was becoming established. This means that craftsmen and labourers were producing, not for direct consumption of  the local society, but for trade within the far flung Aryan and non-Aryan settlements. Trade routes of Uttarapatha,  and later Dakshinapatha, were established. You can see these routes in Fig. 3.4. Traders known as Sar:havahas  (Caravaneers)  and Vaidehikas started to ply along the routes, from Taxila to Magadha. From the coins found in the excavations, we can deduce that regular coinage had come into use by  the end of  the seventh century B.C. At about the end of  this pcr~od,  professionals appeared in the fields of science, medicine and technology. Students from al! along Uttarapatha started to travel to centres of  learning, such as Taxila, for specialised training. The learned grammarian Panini taught in Taxila around the fourth century B.C. Atreya taught medicine around the sixth century B.C. Atreya's students and successors  Jivaka, Kuniarabhacha,  Bhela, Parasara and others, came to have profound influence on  the development of medicine and chemistry  in India in the next 1000 years. A new 0rdel.1~  social life came into being around 800  to 600 B.C. This was free from shortages and unending conflicts of  the Vedic society. Small states or 'Janapadas', headed by  kings and governed by codes and laws formulated by  state powers, were being formed.  

Posted Date: 9/27/2012 7:32:03 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Emergence of urban societies, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Emergence of urban societies, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Emergence of urban societies Discussions

Write discussion on Emergence of urban societies
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Diabetes : A diabetic patient may lapse into diabetic coma or unconsciousness, but usually the affected person is aware of the symptoms before this occurs. You can assist at any s

Explain the Serum Creatinine Test Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, an important component of muscle. A serum creatinine test measures the amount of creatinine in

Need for Code of Behaviour : A laboratory is a potentially dangerous working environment. Cuts from broken glass, chemical or thermal burns and poisoning are three examples of lab

Why did the continents spread apart? This is because of the heat generated from the earth's interior and earthquakes - the convection currents deep within the earth due to the

Objectives After doing this exercise you should be able to: 1.  Identify the contents of the gas cylinder by observing the colour code, 2.  State the nature of the gas pr

Explain Hypercapnia and Hypocapnia - Histotoxic Hypoxia Hypercapnia: It is the retention of carbon dioxide in the body. There is a depression of the central nervous system.

Define the Levels of Drugs in Urine Levels of alcohol and barbiturates (a group of drugs derived from barbituric acid that is used to sedate, to control convulsions or to induc


QUESTION 1 ‘First Impression is the last impression.' Discuss this very often heard quote referring to the theory of Solomon Asch. Support your answer with examples from your o

Explain the Counter Current Mechanism? What is counter current mechanism? Counter current mechanism is the mechanism by which the kidneys produce osmotically concentrated urine