Emergence of contemporary biology, Biology


1.       Aristotle (384-322BC) - Greek

  • Classified animal species and arranged them in hierarchies.
  • Formulated 'Great chain of Being' or 'Scala Naturae' as chain of progressive change.
  • Dealt with over 500 types of animals and dissected 50 of them.
  • Studied developing embryo of chick and reported that sharks give birth to young ones but have no placenta like mammals, classified placental dolphins with mammals.
  • Historia animalium (Natural history of animals)
  • De Partibus animalium (Parts of animals) .
  • De Generatione animalium (Reproduction of animals)
  • He studied the development of chick embryo.
  • Observed and reported vivipary in sharks (They do not develop placenta)

2.       Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). Belgian; "Father of Anatomy"

Book : De Humani Corporis Fabrica (The structure of human body)

3.       William Harvey (1578-1657). British; demonstrated blood circulation pumped by heart.

Book: Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood. Also contributed-reproduction and embryonic development of chick.

4.       Robert Hooke (1635-1703) British;

Book: Micrographia. Coined the term 'cellulae'.

5.       Antony Von Leeuwenhoeck (1632-1723). Dutch cloth merchant turned scientist;

  • Observed living cells with his own invented simple microscope. e.g. protozoans, human sperm, eggs, (and blood corpuscles of invertebrates, Hydra, about compound eyes of insects & many other animals structures.)
  • First to draw a diagram of bacteria (1683).

6.       Carolus Linnaeus - (1707-1778) Swedish naturalist. Introduced Binomial nomenclature.

Book: Species Plantarum (1753) registers about 6000 species of plants.

Systema Naturae (1758) - recorded about 4000 species of animals.

7.       Georges Leopold Cuvier (1769-1832) French palaeontologist

  • Rejected the traditional 'scala naturae' as a unifying concept of evolution.
  • First to identify the fossils of extinct bird like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology.
  • First to give concept of comparative anatomy of chordates.

8.       Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) French naturalist; discarded the idea of fixity of species.

Book: Philosophie Zoologique (1809)

9.       Matthias Schleiden-(1804-1881) Cell theory - (1838) German Botanist

10.     Theodor Schwann-(1810-1882) Cell theory - (1839) German Zoologist

11.     Charles Robert Darwin -British naturalist (1809-1882).

Book: On the origin of species by natural selection:

12.     Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) french scientist.

  • Refused the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • Proved fermentation is caused by living organisms
  • Gave Germ Theory of diseases, and developed scientific basis of immunity on cholera bacteria in chicken.
  • Discovered vaccine against anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis in cattle.
  • His technique of killing germs (or sterlisation) Pasteurization.

13.     Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian monk; discovered (1865) the Principles of inheritance which remained unknown to the world till 1900.

14.     August Weismann (1834-1914) - German biologist; gave theory of germplasm-(1892).

Posted Date: 10/8/2012 4:37:27 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Emergence of contemporary biology, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Emergence of contemporary biology, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Emergence of contemporary biology Discussions

Write discussion on Emergence of contemporary biology
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What is the mode of nutrition in fish,human,amoeba,scorpian & toad ?

TRACHE A - It is a thin walled tube. Situated on ventral side. Commonly known as wind pipe. Supported by C-shaped cartilagenous rings. Incomplete dorsally due to oesopha

Two major objectives must be achieved to treat IE effectively. The infecting  micro-organism in the vegetation must be eradicated. Also, invasive, destructive intracardiac and foca

Determine Protein needs during pregnancy period? Altogether, 925 g of protein are deposited in a normal foetus and maternal accessory tissues and considering the dietary protei

Need an essay in regard to an experiment that I did. Essay Assignment: Experimental Design Now that you have completed several hands-on lab experiments, take a little time to con

55yrs old woman had burns and has lost 6% body fluid.She weighs 50Kg.How much fluid does she need to replace the lost fluid.

a) The image above is part of a DNA sequencing gel. Assuming this is the DNA coding strand and you are reading 5' -> 3' what are ALL the possible polypeptides this sequence cou

The Basque people, who lived in the Pyrenees Mountains between France and Spain, have one of the highest frequencies of the d allele in the Rh system so far reported. In one study

Q. Summarize the cellular and molecular events of bone formation? The events involved in osseous wound healing at implants recapitulate the events of wound healing. Haemostasi