Emergence of contemporary biology, Biology

EMERGENCE OF CONTEMPORARY BIOLOGY -

1.       Aristotle (384-322BC) - Greek

  • Classified animal species and arranged them in hierarchies.
  • Formulated 'Great chain of Being' or 'Scala Naturae' as chain of progressive change.
  • Dealt with over 500 types of animals and dissected 50 of them.
  • Studied developing embryo of chick and reported that sharks give birth to young ones but have no placenta like mammals, classified placental dolphins with mammals.
  • Historia animalium (Natural history of animals)
  • De Partibus animalium (Parts of animals) .
  • De Generatione animalium (Reproduction of animals)
  • He studied the development of chick embryo.
  • Observed and reported vivipary in sharks (They do not develop placenta)

2.       Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). Belgian; "Father of Anatomy"

Book : De Humani Corporis Fabrica (The structure of human body)

3.       William Harvey (1578-1657). British; demonstrated blood circulation pumped by heart.

Book: Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood. Also contributed-reproduction and embryonic development of chick.

4.       Robert Hooke (1635-1703) British;

Book: Micrographia. Coined the term 'cellulae'.

5.       Antony Von Leeuwenhoeck (1632-1723). Dutch cloth merchant turned scientist;

  • Observed living cells with his own invented simple microscope. e.g. protozoans, human sperm, eggs, (and blood corpuscles of invertebrates, Hydra, about compound eyes of insects & many other animals structures.)
  • First to draw a diagram of bacteria (1683).

6.       Carolus Linnaeus - (1707-1778) Swedish naturalist. Introduced Binomial nomenclature.

Book: Species Plantarum (1753) registers about 6000 species of plants.

Systema Naturae (1758) - recorded about 4000 species of animals.

7.       Georges Leopold Cuvier (1769-1832) French palaeontologist

  • Rejected the traditional 'scala naturae' as a unifying concept of evolution.
  • First to identify the fossils of extinct bird like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology.
  • First to give concept of comparative anatomy of chordates.

8.       Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) French naturalist; discarded the idea of fixity of species.

Book: Philosophie Zoologique (1809)

9.       Matthias Schleiden-(1804-1881) Cell theory - (1838) German Botanist

10.     Theodor Schwann-(1810-1882) Cell theory - (1839) German Zoologist

11.     Charles Robert Darwin -British naturalist (1809-1882).

Book: On the origin of species by natural selection:

12.     Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) french scientist.

  • Refused the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • Proved fermentation is caused by living organisms
  • Gave Germ Theory of diseases, and developed scientific basis of immunity on cholera bacteria in chicken.
  • Discovered vaccine against anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis in cattle.
  • His technique of killing germs (or sterlisation) Pasteurization.

13.     Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian monk; discovered (1865) the Principles of inheritance which remained unknown to the world till 1900.

14.     August Weismann (1834-1914) - German biologist; gave theory of germplasm-(1892).

Posted Date: 10/8/2012 4:37:27 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Emergence of contemporary biology, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Emergence of contemporary biology, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Emergence of contemporary biology Discussions

Write discussion on Emergence of contemporary biology
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
The Amazon rainforest in South America is a biodiverse ecosystem. There are large numbers of plant and animal species making up the food web, including over 350 species of predator

Describe MS Murmur in Diastolic Murmurs briefly? Characteristic: Low pitched, rumbling and diastolic murmur, loudest at apex with patient in left lateral decubitus, with pre

Foraminifera is the single-celled protists which secrete a shell or test. This is the accumulations of the shells of dead foraminifera and the other microscopic sea creatures form

Invasion or Migration - Ecology When a habitat is changed it can be a potential site for the establishment of many organisms. Many species actually invade or reach this new si

Explain about Simple proteins Simple proteins are those which are made of amino acid units only joined by peptide bond.  Upon hydrolysis they yield a mixture of amino acids and

give the discriptive account of nerilla which belongs to class arciannelida in phylum annelida

Define The figure of 8 and Mattress suturing techniques The figure of 8:  is placed similarly to the simple loop on the buccal aspect; however, on the lingual aspect, the needl

Q. What is the difference between spermatocyte I and spermatogonium? The male germ cells are the spermatogonia (diploid cells, 2n) situated in the testicles and they mature an

After ovulation:- (a) what structure replaces the Graafian follicle (b) what hormone does it produce?   (a) After ovulation, the follicle is replaced by the cor

What are trends of the gametophyte in the evolution of plants? The tendency of the gametophyte evolution in plants has been towards the formation of gametes that are self-dete