Emergence of contemporary biology, Biology

EMERGENCE OF CONTEMPORARY BIOLOGY -

1.       Aristotle (384-322BC) - Greek

  • Classified animal species and arranged them in hierarchies.
  • Formulated 'Great chain of Being' or 'Scala Naturae' as chain of progressive change.
  • Dealt with over 500 types of animals and dissected 50 of them.
  • Studied developing embryo of chick and reported that sharks give birth to young ones but have no placenta like mammals, classified placental dolphins with mammals.
  • Historia animalium (Natural history of animals)
  • De Partibus animalium (Parts of animals) .
  • De Generatione animalium (Reproduction of animals)
  • He studied the development of chick embryo.
  • Observed and reported vivipary in sharks (They do not develop placenta)

2.       Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). Belgian; "Father of Anatomy"

Book : De Humani Corporis Fabrica (The structure of human body)

3.       William Harvey (1578-1657). British; demonstrated blood circulation pumped by heart.

Book: Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood. Also contributed-reproduction and embryonic development of chick.

4.       Robert Hooke (1635-1703) British;

Book: Micrographia. Coined the term 'cellulae'.

5.       Antony Von Leeuwenhoeck (1632-1723). Dutch cloth merchant turned scientist;

  • Observed living cells with his own invented simple microscope. e.g. protozoans, human sperm, eggs, (and blood corpuscles of invertebrates, Hydra, about compound eyes of insects & many other animals structures.)
  • First to draw a diagram of bacteria (1683).

6.       Carolus Linnaeus - (1707-1778) Swedish naturalist. Introduced Binomial nomenclature.

Book: Species Plantarum (1753) registers about 6000 species of plants.

Systema Naturae (1758) - recorded about 4000 species of animals.

7.       Georges Leopold Cuvier (1769-1832) French palaeontologist

  • Rejected the traditional 'scala naturae' as a unifying concept of evolution.
  • First to identify the fossils of extinct bird like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology.
  • First to give concept of comparative anatomy of chordates.

8.       Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) French naturalist; discarded the idea of fixity of species.

Book: Philosophie Zoologique (1809)

9.       Matthias Schleiden-(1804-1881) Cell theory - (1838) German Botanist

10.     Theodor Schwann-(1810-1882) Cell theory - (1839) German Zoologist

11.     Charles Robert Darwin -British naturalist (1809-1882).

Book: On the origin of species by natural selection:

12.     Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) french scientist.

  • Refused the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • Proved fermentation is caused by living organisms
  • Gave Germ Theory of diseases, and developed scientific basis of immunity on cholera bacteria in chicken.
  • Discovered vaccine against anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis in cattle.
  • His technique of killing germs (or sterlisation) Pasteurization.

13.     Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian monk; discovered (1865) the Principles of inheritance which remained unknown to the world till 1900.

14.     August Weismann (1834-1914) - German biologist; gave theory of germplasm-(1892).

Posted Date: 10/8/2012 4:37:27 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Emergence of contemporary biology, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Emergence of contemporary biology, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Emergence of contemporary biology Discussions

Write discussion on Emergence of contemporary biology
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
As bone looses width, height, volume, the attached gingiva gradually decreases and is prone to abrasions caused by the overlying prosthesis. In addition high muscle attachments and

Question 1 What is diabetes mellitus? Discuss briefly its pathogenesis. Explain how would you diagnose this disorder Question 2 Discuss the following Glucose tolerance

Explain Clinical stigmata of specific syndromes in heart disease? Clinical stigmata of specific syndromes: Evidence of preseilce of chromosoinal anomalies or other syndromes

PURPOSES OF ASSESSING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN Before you assess the growth and development you should be aware of the purpose of monitoring. The purposes are a

What is Photosynthesis ? Photosynthesis is the method by which plants trap radiant energy from the sun and convert the energy into a biochemical form. This biochemical energy

Solubility of Gases in water Most gases which are important for biological processes dissolve readily and specially in water. The solubility of any gas in water generally var


Define Renal Function & cardiovascular - change related with ageing? Changes associated with the cardiovascular and renal function: The progressive accumulation of athermanous

What are secondary roots? In origin how secondary roots differentiate from shoots? Secondary roots are ramifications of the primary (major) root. The secondary roots emerge fro

Q. What is myocardial infarction? The Myocardial infarction is the condition in which an area of this tissue or the entire heart muscle dies by hypoxia due to lack of blood irr