Emergence of contemporary biology, Biology

EMERGENCE OF CONTEMPORARY BIOLOGY -

1.       Aristotle (384-322BC) - Greek

  • Classified animal species and arranged them in hierarchies.
  • Formulated 'Great chain of Being' or 'Scala Naturae' as chain of progressive change.
  • Dealt with over 500 types of animals and dissected 50 of them.
  • Studied developing embryo of chick and reported that sharks give birth to young ones but have no placenta like mammals, classified placental dolphins with mammals.
  • Historia animalium (Natural history of animals)
  • De Partibus animalium (Parts of animals) .
  • De Generatione animalium (Reproduction of animals)
  • He studied the development of chick embryo.
  • Observed and reported vivipary in sharks (They do not develop placenta)

2.       Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564). Belgian; "Father of Anatomy"

Book : De Humani Corporis Fabrica (The structure of human body)

3.       William Harvey (1578-1657). British; demonstrated blood circulation pumped by heart.

Book: Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood. Also contributed-reproduction and embryonic development of chick.

4.       Robert Hooke (1635-1703) British;

Book: Micrographia. Coined the term 'cellulae'.

5.       Antony Von Leeuwenhoeck (1632-1723). Dutch cloth merchant turned scientist;

  • Observed living cells with his own invented simple microscope. e.g. protozoans, human sperm, eggs, (and blood corpuscles of invertebrates, Hydra, about compound eyes of insects & many other animals structures.)
  • First to draw a diagram of bacteria (1683).

6.       Carolus Linnaeus - (1707-1778) Swedish naturalist. Introduced Binomial nomenclature.

Book: Species Plantarum (1753) registers about 6000 species of plants.

Systema Naturae (1758) - recorded about 4000 species of animals.

7.       Georges Leopold Cuvier (1769-1832) French palaeontologist

  • Rejected the traditional 'scala naturae' as a unifying concept of evolution.
  • First to identify the fossils of extinct bird like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology.
  • First to give concept of comparative anatomy of chordates.

8.       Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) French naturalist; discarded the idea of fixity of species.

Book: Philosophie Zoologique (1809)

9.       Matthias Schleiden-(1804-1881) Cell theory - (1838) German Botanist

10.     Theodor Schwann-(1810-1882) Cell theory - (1839) German Zoologist

11.     Charles Robert Darwin -British naturalist (1809-1882).

Book: On the origin of species by natural selection:

12.     Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) french scientist.

  • Refused the theory of spontaneous generation.
  • Proved fermentation is caused by living organisms
  • Gave Germ Theory of diseases, and developed scientific basis of immunity on cholera bacteria in chicken.
  • Discovered vaccine against anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis in cattle.
  • His technique of killing germs (or sterlisation) Pasteurization.

13.     Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian monk; discovered (1865) the Principles of inheritance which remained unknown to the world till 1900.

14.     August Weismann (1834-1914) - German biologist; gave theory of germplasm-(1892).

Posted Date: 10/8/2012 4:37:27 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Emergence of contemporary biology, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Emergence of contemporary biology, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Emergence of contemporary biology Discussions

Write discussion on Emergence of contemporary biology
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Syngamy and Triple Fusion After traversing through the stylar region, the ultimate destination of the pollen tube is to reach the female gametophyte and release the male game

The PRS kit is comprised of          -5 variously sized trephines and corresponding tubes according to material if it's silver or silver point          -A transmetal bur

What is ancylostomiasis? Ancylostomiasis is a disease caused by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, both hookworms belonging to the nematode phylum (roundworms). Ancyl

Q. Explain Consciousness as inner state? Consciousness as inner state: We are conscious of thoughts, images, emotions and memories within ourselves though they may not have phy

What is hemoglobin? What is the inorganic element that is fundamental in the composition of hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is the protein present in the blood responsible for the trans

What does S-shaped pattern of population growth show? How is J-shaped pattern dissimilar from it and why?

Q What is the usefulness of fungi for some industries? Fungi are industrially used in the production of fermented beverage, cheese, bread, and so on. A few fungi are very impor

Explain the Radiographic Failure of Root Canal Treatment It is the persistence or development of pathosis radiographically. Specifically, this is a radiolucent lesion that has

What is the meaning of Prohaptor? The specialized attachment sucker which surrounds the mouth in monogenean flukes. It comrpise adhesive structures which help attach the animal

Which of the following is true for the ATP-sensitive potassium channel? A. The channel is a spanning protein with a receptor site for ATP located on an extracellular region of