EFFECT OF ALCOHOL -
1. EFFECT ON NERVOUS SYSTEM -
Alcohol has an anesthetic effect on nervous system.
It affects orientation, alertness, coordination, judgement, memory & mood.
Cerebrum is affected first of all.
Person loses judgement, will power & self control.
Anxiety disappears and the person feels light headed.
After that cerebellum is affected, person becomes dizzy, shows imbalancing, tongue muscles are also affected.
2. WERNICK'S & KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROMES -
It is characterized by rhythmic oscillation of eye ball, inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement & mental disturbance.
3. EFFECT ON STOMACH -
A small dose of alcohol stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.
A large dose causes gastritis.
Alcohol causes absorption in intestine, leading to diarrhoea & deficiency of calcium, iron & vitamins.
Chronic heavy drinking can cause violent vomiting, which may accelerate lower and of oesophagus, resulting in bleeding. This is mallory weiss syndrome (MWS).
4. EFFECT ON LIVER -
Due to more drinking, liver stores mainly fats. This cause fatty liver syndrome.
Liver gradually hardens & dries up at its cells are replaced by a fibrous tissue. This is liver cirrhosis.
5. EFFECT ON PANCREASE -
It causes painful inflammation of pancreas i.e. pancreatitis.
6. EFFECT ON HEART -
Blood vessels dilute to get rid of the heat product by its oxidation.
Due to continuous dilation, the arterial walls become rigid and brittle. This may cause rise in B.P., increase in heart beat (tachycardia) and malformation of heart muscles (myocardiopathy).
7. EFFECT ON BLOOD -
Use of alcohol lowers blood sugar level (hypoglycaemia), reduces platelets count.
8. EFFECT ON SKELETAL MUSCLES -
Heavy drinking may cause painful & inflamed muscles (alcoholic myopathy).
9. HIGHER CANCER RISKS -
The risk of cancer of oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach & liver is increased.
10. ANAEMIA -
Heavy drinking causes complex anaemia with iron deficiency.
11. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION -
Impotency is common.
12. EFFECT ON KIDNEYS -
As alcohol is diuretic, work of kidney is increased.
13. EFFECT ON IMMUNITY -
They suffer from loss of resistance to infection & malnutrition.
14. EFFECT ON ENDOCRINE GLANDS -
It increases output of cortisol and decreases testosterone, vasopressin & thyroxin.
15. EFFECT ON BABIES -
Babies of alcoholic mothers are often unhealthy & underweight & may even be abnormal. It is foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).