Edema, Biology


It refers to excessive accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces caused by disturbance in the fluid interchange between capillaries, tissue spaces and lymphatic vessels.

Etiology: Edema may be due to increase in the hydrostatic pressure or decrease in the osmotic pressure of blood. Any obstruction to the lymphatic drainage or damage to the capillary walls may result in edema. Hydrostatic pressure increases when there is congestive heart failure or there is compression of mammary veins by a foetus. Hepatic fibrosis also leads to ascites. Blood loss due to parasites such as Haemonchus, Fasciola sp., Bunostomum sp. or protein loss due to renal diseases decreases osmotic pressure. It may also occur in hypoproteinemia due to protein deficient diet or liver damage. Lymphatic drainage may be blocked in obstruction, inflammatory swelling, tumor growth or vascular damage as seen in allergic edema. Toxic damage caused by anthrax, gas gangrene and viral arteritis also causes edema.

Clinical signs: Oedematous swellings are soft, painless and pits on pressure. Accumulation of fluid in different cavities may result in ascites, anasarca, hydrothorax and hydropericardium. Heart and respiratory sounds are dull. There is loss of appetite and anaemia.

Diagnosis: Examination of fluid from oedematous swelling reveals absence of inflammatory cells, and the protein content is quite variable.

Treatment: The primary cause of the edema should be ascertained and treatment of the primary cause is required for cure. Use of diuretics and regulation of sodium and water intake are undertaken to manage edema. Peritoneal fluid may be removed through paracentesis, however large quantity of fluid should not be removed suddenly to avoid shock. High quality protein diet should be provided to the affected animal, and digitalization is recommended in myocardial asthenia as seen in congestive heart failure.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:07:57 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Edema, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Edema, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Edema Discussions

Write discussion on Edema
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What is pleiotropy? Pleiotropy (or pliotropy) is the occurrence in which a single gene conditions several dissimilar phenotypical traits. Some phenotypical traits might be s

Explain in detail about Male Reproductive System The male reproductive organ consists of the following:  A pair of testes, held in scortum; produces spermatooa and testoster

Explain about Simple proteins Simple proteins are those which are made of amino acid units only joined by peptide bond.  Upon hydrolysis they yield a mixture of amino acids and

Explain about the Chemical Carcinogens? Chemicals have been shown to be carcinogenic. Some are naturally occurring components of plants and microbial organisms. Some are synthe

Muromonab CD-3 (Orthoclone, OKT-3) A monoclonal antibody against mature T lymphocytes, OKT-3 is primarily used to treat acute rejection episode. IV for 10-14 days. Effe

what r the demerits of 5 kingdom classification?

Symptoms of digitalis toxicity include anorexia, nausea, headache, blurring or yellowing of vision, and disorientation. Cardiac toxicity may take the form of atrioventricular condu

Water Reuse And Recycling Are Becoming   Much More Common As Demands For Water Exceed Supply. Unplanned reuse occurs as the result of waste effluents entering receiving waters or g

New advancements and discoveries related to oogenesis

Photoreceptors Photoreceptors are concerned in absorption of light by photosensitive pigments. The chemical change involved produces the impulse concerned in the nerve cells.