Edema, Biology

Edema

It refers to excessive accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces caused by disturbance in the fluid interchange between capillaries, tissue spaces and lymphatic vessels.

Etiology: Edema may be due to increase in the hydrostatic pressure or decrease in the osmotic pressure of blood. Any obstruction to the lymphatic drainage or damage to the capillary walls may result in edema. Hydrostatic pressure increases when there is congestive heart failure or there is compression of mammary veins by a foetus. Hepatic fibrosis also leads to ascites. Blood loss due to parasites such as Haemonchus, Fasciola sp., Bunostomum sp. or protein loss due to renal diseases decreases osmotic pressure. It may also occur in hypoproteinemia due to protein deficient diet or liver damage. Lymphatic drainage may be blocked in obstruction, inflammatory swelling, tumor growth or vascular damage as seen in allergic edema. Toxic damage caused by anthrax, gas gangrene and viral arteritis also causes edema.

Clinical signs: Oedematous swellings are soft, painless and pits on pressure. Accumulation of fluid in different cavities may result in ascites, anasarca, hydrothorax and hydropericardium. Heart and respiratory sounds are dull. There is loss of appetite and anaemia.

Diagnosis: Examination of fluid from oedematous swelling reveals absence of inflammatory cells, and the protein content is quite variable.

Treatment: The primary cause of the edema should be ascertained and treatment of the primary cause is required for cure. Use of diuretics and regulation of sodium and water intake are undertaken to manage edema. Peritoneal fluid may be removed through paracentesis, however large quantity of fluid should not be removed suddenly to avoid shock. High quality protein diet should be provided to the affected animal, and digitalization is recommended in myocardial asthenia as seen in congestive heart failure.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:07:57 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Edema, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Edema, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Edema Discussions

Write discussion on Edema
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
What are the differences between astral and anastral mitosis? Astral mitosis is that in which there is structure of the aster, a structure made by the centrioles. Anastral mito

Q. List the steps of mitosis and briefly describe what happens in each.

Name the system that contains three neurons Consider a system that contains three neurons in a culture dish bathed in normal physiological saline.  All three neurons are health

Q. How is photic energy absorbed by chlorophyll transfered to ATP molecules in photophosphorylation and How will be the resulting ATP used? Light excites energizes and chloroph

Q. Show the Artificial Keys? These are based on the resemblances and differences of some prominent characters in the taxa. These are based on the phylogenetic relationship b

Glycosides Calcinogenic glycosides: Certain plants contain glycosides of the active metabolite of vitamin D. The metabolite is called 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or mo

Amino acid is any of a class of 20 molecules which are combined to form the proteins in living things. Consisting of the general formula NH2-CHR-COOH, where "R" is the side chain

How many cellular nuclei does the pollen tube of angiosperms have? What is the ploidy of each of these nuclei? The pollen tube that is the mature male gametophyte of angiosperm

Q What are the few examples of arthropods? Ants, crabs, cockroaches, shrimps, flies, spiders and scorpions are examples of arthropods.

To study the conditions essential for the germination of seeds:- In the diagram below a having seeds on cotton wool with air, warmth, but no water; b has water, warmth, but no