Echinococcosis (hydatidosis), Biology

Echinococcosis (hydatidosis)


Echinococcosis, also called hydatidosis, is a global problem particularly in countries where sheep and cattle raising forms the major animal husbandry practices. The zoonotic importance of the disease stems from the fact that the life-cycle of the parasite involves a definite host, usually a member of the family canidae and an intermediate host, normally a herbivore.
Echinococcosis is caused by the parasitic tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus. E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli are responsible for human infection. The parasite occurs in two stages- the adult and the larval forms. The disease in man is caused by the larval stage of the parasite.


Epidemiology: Echinococcosis is a cyclo-zoonosis. Recent information indicates that the eggs are deposited in clusters and around faecal mass or near faecal segments excreted by final host belonging to the family canidae. These eggs consist of juvenile and infective stages. When these are ingested by a herbivore or man, they hatch out in the duodenum and migrate to the mesenteric venules and become lodged in various organs. The eggs also consist of senescent organisms, which if ingested first, induce immunity in the intermediate host.


The incidence of the disease is more in certain occupational workers like shoe- makers and shoe-repairers. This is related to their practice dipping hides of animals in a decoction of dog faeces for preparing leather.
Ce rtain mo de s o f r ec rea tio n in man (sea side sp orts, ca mping, tour ism, mountaineering, hunting, fishing, etc.) have resulted in bringing man in closer contact with hydatid endemic foci and thereby increasing the chances of acquiring the disease.
 
Clinical features: The clinical signs are caused by mechanical pressure exerted by the cyst on the surrounding tissues. Hence clinical signs vary with the size and location of the cyst. Cysts of moderate size are generally asymptomatic and may only cause mild abdominal heaviness. Large cysts, however, cause mechanical obstruction. Physical examination reveals hepatomegaly. Jaundice may ensue from pressure on major biliary duct. Fever, malaise, headache and eosinophilia are generally associated with the clinical disease.


Laboratory diagnosis: The disease is diagnosed by abdominal radiography, cholangiograms and liver scanning. Casoni’s skin test, an intradermal allergic test using filtered hydatid fluid as antigen, is used as a screening test. Serological tests, such as complement fixation test, agglutination test, the fluorescent antibody test, immunoelectrophoresis, etc. are used for studying the epidemiology of the disease.


Control and prevention:

The followings are the basis of control of this disease:
1.  Health education for improving personal hygiene in the handling of dogs as pets and companions. Reducing the dog population.
2.  The prevention of dogs from gaining access to raw offals.
3.  The proper disposal of the offals.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 3:17:01 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Echinococcosis (hydatidosis), Assignment Help, Ask Question on Echinococcosis (hydatidosis), Get Answer, Expert's Help, Echinococcosis (hydatidosis) Discussions

Write discussion on Echinococcosis (hydatidosis)
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Causes of Air Pollution We known about the composition of atmosphere, its major and minor constituents. The composition of atmosphere has remained the same for thousands of y

Define Feeding and Nutritional Management for Neuro trauma? The main objective of nutritional management is to counteract the hypermetabolism associated with inflammation. The

S w i n e fever It is also known as hog cholera and results in high fever and prostration. E t iology : Pestivirus belonging to family Togaviridae is responsi

Explain about the Functional Properties of Proteins? It may be clear by now that functionality (as implied to food ingredients) refers to 'any property aside from the nutrition

The main point of control of β-oxidation is the availability of fatty acids.  The major  source   of  free  fatty   acids   in  the  blood   is  from   the  breakdown   of triacylg


Define Dietary Management during Surgery? Surgery increases the nutritional demands of the body and can lead to the elicitation of several nutritional deficiencies/imbalance. M

Messenger RNA (mRNA) are the proteins are not synthesized directly from the genomic DNA. Insteadof that an RNA template (a precursor mRNA) is constructed from the sequence of gene

Explain about the Nucleoproteins? Nucleoproteins are combinations of nucleic acids land simple proteins, which usually consists of a large number of basic amino acids. Nucleopr