Eastern/western/venezuelan equine encephalitis, Biology

Eastern/Western/Venezuelan equine encephalitis

This encephalitis causing group of viral diseases of wild birds including pheasants, chickens, turkeys, ducks and pigeons with a high morbidity and mortality has become a matter of concern due to its transmissibility between birds and their zoonotic nature. All 3 types of infections are caused by members of the family Togaviridae, genus Alpha virus. These conditions currently occur only in North America and northern part of South America. The natural hosts are wild birds and rodents. T he viruses can also infect horses and humans. The viruses, which begin their life cycles as parasites of wild birds, are transferred to horses and humans, through saliva of mosquitoes. The most important mosquito species in maintaining the bird-mosquito transmission cycle is Culiseta melanura, which reproduces in freshwater hardwood swamps.

The symptoms of equine encephalitis in humans are fever, drowsiness and incoordination, often followed by paralysis and death. The mortality rate is 90%, usually within 2 to 3 days in the most virulent Eastern type and as high as 50% in the Western type. Equine encephalitis is a serious public-health problem in northern part of South America.

Symptoms and lesions: The birds show nervous symptoms like ataxia, paresis, paralysis, flaccid neck, circling, tremors etc. Sometimes, the infection may also be asymptomatic. On PM examination of the dead birds, no gross lesions are seen and microscopic lesions are also not pathognomonic.

Diagnosis: Isolation in baby mice, tissue culture, and developing chicken embryos can be confirmatory.

Prevention and control: General biosecurity and mosquito control policy should be adopted. Basically this is not a disease of domestic poultry however; strict vigil and early detection of any suspected mortality in backyard poultry may prevent further losses.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 8:46:55 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Eastern/western/venezuelan equine encephalitis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Eastern/western/venezuelan equine encephalitis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Eastern/western/venezuelan equine encephalitis Discussions

Write discussion on Eastern/western/venezuelan equine encephalitis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Name three sources of energy which do not depend on fossil fuel. Sources of energy which do not rely on fossil fuel are water (hydroelectric generation), wind, tidal power, wav

Suppose the following base sequence was found in a 21 base DNA polymer. 3' TAC   TTA   GGC   TCC    GTT    CAG   ATT       5' 1. Provide the nucleotide sequence complementary

When do you use the term 2' carbon and when do you use 2 carbons on a molecular structure? I need examples please!

What are the structures that participate in the human auditory sensitivity? The structures of the human auditory sensitivity are the ears (external, middle and internal), the

The initial stage of packaging have the binding of the chromosomal DNA to histones.  Whole, in chromosomes the ratio of the DNA to histones on a weight basis is around 1:1. There a

Explain the term Tracheostomy ? If the duration of mechanical ventilation is likely to be prolonged, it is wise to do an early tracheostomy. Otherwise, a tracheostomy is usuall

life cycle of tapeworm in detail

Determine the types of Emulsions? A food emulsion is basically a two phase system consisting of a liquid, such as oil, wax or essential oil and water. An emulsion has 3 parts -

Ask question # what happen during plant respiration?

What are the main structures of the human eye? The major structures of the human eye are the cornea, the iris, the pupil, the ciliary muscles, the crystalline lens and the ret