Disorders related to nutrition and digestive system, Biology



Malnutrition is improper intake of food. Malnutrion covers both undernutrition and overnutrition.


Undernutrition is insufficient intake of nutrients. Marasmus and Kwashiorker are diseases of undernutrition.

Marasmus disease

Marasmus disease occurs due to deficiency of carbohydrates and proteins in diet.

In Marasmus disease body becomes thin, swin is wrinkled, diarrhoea occurs and growth is retarded.

Kwashiorkar Disease

Kwashiorkar disease is due to protein deficiency.

In kwashiorkar disease wasting to muscles, thin limbs, oedema, diarrhoea and brain retardation occurs.


Obesity is due to taking more calories then the expenditure the body.

Extra calories are deposited in the form of a layer of fat in subcutaneous tissue.


Diarrhoea is frequent defecation.

During diarrhoea faeces is loose and fluid like.

Diarrhoea may be due to viral or bacterial or protozoan infection.

Sometimes diarrhoea occurs due to mental tension.

Due to irritation of wall of colon, peristalsis increases causing frequent defecation.


Constipation occurs due to taking fewer fibres in diet and drinking little water.

Due to deficiency of fibres in diet, peristalsis becomes slow and faeces remains in the alimentary canal for a longer duration.

Due to longer duration of faeces in the alimentary canal more water is reabsorbed and faeces becomes very dry and hard.

During constipation defecation is difficult and painful.


Hyperacidity is excessive secretion of HCl in stomach.

Hyperacidity occurs due to excessive use of spicy food, taking certain medicines as aspirin on empty stomach, excessive use of alcohol, emotional disturbance etc.

During hyperacidity burning sensation occurs in the stomach.

Sometimes feeling of excessive pain occurs and it is popularly known as "heart bum".


Continuous hyperacidity may lead to ulcer formation.

Ulcers present in stomach are called peptic ulcers or gastric ulcers.

Ulcers present in duodenum are called duodenal ulcers.


Jaundice is yellowing of skin, eye balls and excretion of dark yellow urine.

Jaundice occurs due to non functioning of liver.

Non-functioning of liver causes accumulation of bilirubin in the blood.

Function of the liver may be affected due to viral or bacterial infection or obstruction of bile duct.

Excessive destruction of RBCs can also cause jaundice, it is called hemolytic jaundice.


Hepatitis is inflammation of liver.

Most common cause of inflammation of liver is infection by hepatitis virus.

Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are due to infection by different strains of viruses.

Jaundice is one symptom of hepatits.


Colitis is inflammation of colon and rectum.

Colitis occurs due to irritation of colon and rectum.

Sometimes infection of virus or protozoans such as Entaamoeba histolytica also causes colitis.

During colitis desire for frequent defecation occurs.

Faeces is loose and mixed with blood in colitis.


Appendicitis is inflammation of vermiform appendix.

Surgical removal of appendix is called appendectomy.


Tonsillitis is inflammation of palatine tonsils due to infection of bacteria.

Most common bacteria causing tonsillitis are Streptococcus aurae.

In case of repeated infection, tonsils are surgically removed.

Surgical removal of tonsils is - Tonsilectomy.


Mumps is viral infection of parotid salivary glands.

Salivary glands are inflamed and swelling occurs behind the ears.


Nausea is feeling of vomiting.

Nausea occurs due to irritation of gastro intestinal tract.


Vomiting occurs due to reverse peristalsis.

Reverse peristalsis occurs due to irritation of gastro intestinal tract either by bacteria or virus or some food.

Vomiting also occurs due to disturbance of semicircular canals.


Due to indigestion or some foods more gas is produced in gastrointestinal tract.

The gas of gastrointestinal tract comes out through anus with sound.

Gall Stones

Small stones formed in the gall bladder are called gall stones.

Gall stones are formed due to fusion of cholesterol with bile.

Posted Date: 10/1/2012 8:16:41 AM | Location : United States

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