Disorder of Parathyroid Function:
The disorders of parathyroid function may either lead to increased production or decreased production of parathormone.
There are two classic forms of hypoparathyroidism which may occur during childhood as given below.
a) Autoimmune hypoparathyroidism, in which there is decreased production of parathormone (PTH), usually in relation to auto-immune phenomena.
b) Familial hypoparathyroidism is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. It has early onset, usually in the first month of life.
In pseudohypoparathyroidism there is increased production of PTH but end-organ responsiveness to the hormone is deficient.
Pseudohypoparathyroidism is also thought to be inherited as an X-linked dominant trait with variable expressivity.
Transient hypoparathyroidism may also be observed in infants born to mothers with the hypothyrodism or in infants fed a milk formula with a high phosphate/calcium ratio. The hypoparathroidism in children may present with dry, scaly, coarse skin with eruptions, hair often brittle, thin nails with grooves, Tetany, dental and enamel hypoplasia, muscle crumps or twitching, paresthesia tingling, diarrhoea, vomiting, headache depression, loss of memory etc. Therapeutic treatment consists of oral administration of calcium glucosnate and vitamin D therapy.