Diseases of Cardiovascular and Haemopoietic System
Cardiovascular system maintains circulation of blood for normal exchange of fluid, electrolytes, oxygen and nutrients. It also helps exchange of excretory substances between vascular system and tissues. Failure of circulation gives rise to circulatory failure. It may be either (i) heart failure or (ii) peripheral failure. In heart failure, the heart is involved and in peripheral failure, the vascular system is not able to return blood to heart.
Diagnosis of the cardiovascular system disorders is done by echocardiography, electrocardiography, exercise tolerance test, phonocardiography, radiography, haematological investigations; blood chemistry like measurement of LDH, triglyceride and lipid profile. Physical examination involves palpation, percussion and auscultation, measurement of pulse, measurement of blood pressure, and cardiac catheterization. It is not necessary to apply all these tests in an individual animal. Careful physical examination, measurement of pulse, radiological examination and haemato-biochemical studies are of value in diagnosis of diseases of this system in large animal.