Electronic money (also known as electronic cash, e-money, electronic currency, digital cash digital money or digital currency) refers to scrip or money which is exchanged only by electronic means. Usually, this involves utilize of computer networks, the internet and digital stored value systems. Direct deposit and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) are examples of electronic money. As well, it is a communal term for financial cryptography and technologies enabling it.
While electronic money has been an attention-grabbing problem for cryptography (see for instance the work of David Chaum and Markus Jakobsson), to date, use of digital cash has been comparatively low-scale. One rare achievement has been Hong Kong's Octopus card system, which ongoing as a transit payment system and has grown-up into a broadly used electronic cash system. Singapore also has an electronic money accomplishment for its public transportation system (commuter trains, bus, etc), which is very similar to Hong Kong's Octopus card and based on the same type of card (FeliCa). A much unbeaten implementation is in the Netherlands, identified as Chipknip.