Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. Particularly, the term encompasses the subsequent:
1) Audio conversion:
1. Analogue to digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital to analogue conversion (DAC).
An A to D converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or Analog to Digital) is an electronic circuit which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The opposite way of operation is performed through a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).
Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage to a digital number. Different coding schemes are using by the digital output, as binary and two's complement binary. Conversely, some non-electronic or merely partially electronic devices, as shaft encoders, that can also be identified to be ADCs.
2) Audio signal processing: processing the digital signal to carry out sample rate conversion.
Audio signal processing, sometimes considered to as audio processing, which is the processing of auditory signals or sound represent in analog/digital format. An analog representation is generally electrical; a voltage level shows the air pressure waveform of the sound. As the same, a digital representation is in the type of pressure wave-form represented like a sequence of binary numbers that allows digital signal processing.
The focus in audio signal processing is classically a mathematical analysis of the parts of the signal which are audible. For illustration, a signal can be modified for various types of purposes that modification is controlled through the auditory domain.
Processing application and methods areas comprise storage, data compression, level compression, enhancement, transmission for illustration: equalization, noise cancellation, filtering, echo or reverb elimination or addition and so on, source separation, computer music and sound effects.
3) Retrieval, storage and transmission of digital information in an audio format as CD, MP3, Ogg Vorbis and so on.
A medium for storing sound and music is an audio format. The word is applied to both the physical medium and the content's format.
Music is recorded and distributed by using a variety of audio formats, some of that store additional information.
Sound inherently starts and ends like an analogue signal and in order for the advantages of digital audio to be realized, the integrity of the signal throughout transmission should be maintained. The conversion process on both ends of the chain should also be of low loss in order to make sure sonic fidelity.
In an audio context, the digital ideal would be to regenerates signals sounding as close as possible to the original analogue signal. Though, conversion is "lossy": compression and conversion algorithms deliberately remove the original sound information, mostly harmonics and the theoretical audio bandwidth which are outside.
Digital information is also lost in transfer by misreading, although can be "restored" through interpolation circuitry and error correction. The restoration of the original music waveforms by decompression throughout playback must be exactly similar as the compression process. Though, a few harmonics as the upper harmonics that have been discarded can never be restored, along with complete accuracy or else. Upon its re-conversion in analogue through the amplifier or loudspeaker, the scheme relies heavily in the human brain to provide the missing sound in playback.
PCM that is Pulse-code Modulation is by far the most general way of representing a digital signal. This is simple and is compressed. A Pulse-code Modulation representation of an analogue signal is produced through measuring i.e. sampling the instant amplitude of the analogue signal and then quantizing the consequence to the nearest bit. Conversely, such to the loss of the original information contributes by rounding.