Differences between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells, Biology

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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC & EUKARYOTIC CELLS

 

S.No.

 

CHARACTERS

 

PROKARYOTIC CELL

 

EUKARYOTIC CELL

 

1

 

Nuclear Membrane

Nuclear membrane absent (Prok. are single

membranous system)

Nuclear membrane present (Euk. are double

enveloped system

 

 

2

 

 

Nucleus

 

Well organised nucleus absent, thus nuclear material is called as Incipient nucleus/prokaryon/Genophore/nucleoid etc.

 

 

Nucleus well organized

 

3

 

Cell organnelles

Membranous cell organelles are absent (Mitochondria, plastids, E.R., golgibody, Microbody)

 

Membranous cell organelles are present. (Plastids only in plants)

4

Ribosome

70-S type

80-S type and 70-S (Mito. & chloroplast)

 

5

 

Cell wall

Present (made by peptidoglycan / Murein /

Muramic acid / Mucopeptide

Present inn plant cells only (made by

cellulose or chitin)

 

6

 

Resp. Enzymes

Present in mesosomes mainly or in cell membrane

 

Found in cytoplasm and mitochondria

 

7

 

Flagella

 

Flagella are single stranded, made up of flagellin protei

 

Flagella are eleven stranded, made up of tubulin protein (9+2 arrangement)

 

 

8

 

 

Photosynthesis

Takes place in thylakoids or lamellaes or chlorosomes in BGA (in bacteria chromatophores)

 

 

Chloroplast

 

9

 

Cyclosis

 

Cytoplasmic streaming absent

 

Present

 

 

10

 

 

Chromosomes

Naked or folded genome made by only circular-ds DNA (C-C type) (Histone protein absent)

 

True chromosomes & more than one

(Histone asso. with DNA) (DNA A-T type)

11

Cell division

Amitosis only

Mitosis & meiosis (R.D.) mainly

12

Ploidy level

Consider as haploid

Haploid, Diploid, Polyploid

 

 

13

 

 

Sexuality

Sexuality or true sexual reproduction absent in prokaryotic cell [In bacteria genetic- recombination or parasexual reproduction by conjugation transduction & transform)

 

Sexuality or sexual reproduction present (Meiosis, gamete formation & true fertilization occurs)

14

Vacuoles

Absent but gas vacuole may present

Present as sap vacuoles in plant cell.

 

15

 

Protein Synthesis

 

Takes place in cytoplasm

Transcription in nucleus & translation in cytoplasm on ribosome

 

 

Examples :-

Bacteria, Cyanobacteria (BGA) Mycoplasma (PPLO), ricketsias, Actinomycetes

 

All plant & animal cells including human cells.


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