Geometry and Astronomy:
The need to portray an ideal world of perfect forms and proportions led to the development of geometry by Pythagoras (583-500 B.C.) and Hippocrates of Chios (about 450 B.C.) (Fig.). 'The latter occupied himself with the solution of problems which were unanswered for a long time. such as squaring the circle and doubling the cube. He failed in both. but opened the w;ly to study the geometry ofcurves. Eudoxus (408-355 B.C.) was probably the greatest Greek matliematician and he was able to explain the motion of sun, moon and plancts by means of sets of concentric spheres, each rotatingabout an axis fixed in the one outside it (Fig. 3.12). The model wascrude, and too simple to explain observed facts, even as known at that time. But the sets of actual metal spheres based on this mode provided the basis for most of the astronomical instruments for a long time.