Determine the Single Limiting Factor
A company manufactures and sells three products as A, B and C. The unit cost and revenue structure for every product and its maximum forecast demand for the coming period are given as:
Product

A

B

C

Selling price per unit (Shs.)

140

100

120

Variable cost per unit (Shs.)

70

60

80

Maximum demand (units)

500

300

300

Machine hours required per unit

10

4

5

The company has a maximum of 6000 machine hours available throughout the coming period
Required
1. Estimate the number of units of each product A, B, and C that should be produced and sold in order to maximize profit
2. Estimate the maximum profit earned from the decision strategy per 1
3. Suggest other factors that management may wish to consider such could result in a change in their decision
4. Estimate the product units to be produced and sold and the net profit earned whether the company wishes to maximize sales of product A since it is thought to be a future market leader
5. Estimate the product units to be sold and the net profit earned it the company agrees to produce a minimum of 70 percent of the maximum demand of every product in order to maintain market spread.
Solution

A

B

C

Total

Maximum demand (units)

500

300

300


Machine hours per unit

10

4

5


Machine hours required

5000

1200

1500

7700

Machine hours available




6000

Shortfall




1700

The specified calculation confirms that machine time is a limiting factor that will restrict the number of products that can be produced and sold
Product

A

B

C

Total

Contribution per unit (Shs.)

70

40

40


Contribution per machine hr (Shs.)

70

10

8


Product ranking

(3)

(1)

(2)


Machine hours utilized

3300

1200

1500


1. Product units produced and sold

330

300

300


Contribution earned (Shs.)

23100

12000

12000

47100

Less fixed cost




20000

2. Net profit




22710

3. The profit maximizing mix may not be implemented where management wish to keep a more balanced market mix or wherever they wish to concentrate on a future market leader. In addition they may wish to explore the possibility of sub contracting some production or of acquiring additional machinery either part of a long term expansion of capacity or on hire
4. Where the sales of product A are to be maximized since it is considered that it will be a future market leader, the analysis sequence is as:
a) Employ the machine hours essential to maximize production of A that is 500 units x 10 hour = 5000 hours
b) Employ the keeping 1000 machine hours to produce B and C in their ranking order
Product B has a higher contribution per machine hour. The 1000 machine hours available are enough to produce 1000/4 = 250 units of B. It is less than its maximum demand. There are no hours left in that to produce product C. Therefore the sales and profit strategy is as:

Units

Contribution per unit Shs.

Total

Product A

500

70

35000

Product B

280

40

10000

Product C

Nil






45000

Less fixed cost



20000

Net profit



25000

5. Where sales have to be spread in order to satisfy 70 percent of the maximum demand of every product like the first criterion the analysis sequence is
a) Employ the machine hours required to produce 70 percent of the maximum production of every product
b) Employ the residual hours up to the maximum of 6000 hours to produce additional units of the product in their ranking up to the maximum demand in every case so long as it is possible

A

B

C

Total

Maximum units

500

300

300


70% of max units

350

210

210


Machine hours

3500

840

1050

5390

Residual hours usage



360

250

610

Total machine hours used

3500

1200

1300

6000

Total units

350

300

260


Total contribution Shs.






24500

12000

10400

46900

Less fixed cots




20000

Net profit




26900
