DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES IN DEVELOPMENT:
We have learned in the previous unit that human resources play a significant role in generating aggregate flow of goods and services. The difference in the growth of national income and the per capita income is explained by the growth in population. Hence, in this unit, we will discuss demographic features and indicators of development. Human resources have a two-pronged relationship with economic growth. As a resource, people are available as factors of production to work in combination with other factors of production like land, capital and enterprise. As consumers, human beings make demand on the national product of the economy. The size of population, therefore, is a crucial determinant of economic growth. A large population may not necessarily contribute to economic growth; in fact, a large fast-rising population may find itself in a situation described by economists as 'over-population'. A related question is: Does economic growth alone constitute economic development? The answer is simple 'No'. Then, What is economic development? What are the indicators of economic development? After reviewing the demographic profile of the Indian economy, we, in this unit, will also address the related question of indicators of development.