Delivery and credit risk, Financial Management

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When a borrower uses repo market for fund financing, he has to deliver the securities to the lender. One way to do this is to deliver the collateral to the lender or to the lender's clearing agent. At the end of the contract, the lender returns the collaterals to the borrower. This process, though simple and straightforward, the costs associated with delivering the collateral may turn to be expensive, particularly for a short-term repo. Instead of delivering the securities, the borrower, if the lender agrees, may hold the security in a segregated customer account. This transaction is called as Hold-In-Custody repo (HIC repo). Even this option is not free from risk. The borrower may use the collateral in another repo transaction. Despite the credit risk associated with HIC repo, it is used when the collateral is difficult to deliver, the transaction amount is very small and the borrower has good reputation. Another alternative to delivering securities is - the borrower can deliver the collateral to the lender's custodial account at the borrower's clearing bank. This process involves merely transfer of securities within the borrower's clearing bank. Suppose a dealer A enters into an overnight repo with X, A transfers the securities to the X's custodial account at A's clearing bank. Next day, the securities are transferred back to A. The dealer A can enter a new transaction with Y without redelivering the securities. The clearing bank establishes a custodial account for Y. this type of repo arrangement is known as tri-party repo.


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