Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis), Biology

CalciumĀ  deficiency (hypocalcicosis)


Calcium deficiency or hypocalciosis is a sporadic condition occurring in a particular group of animals causing osteodystrophy.


Aetiology: Calcium deficiency may be primary or secondary. Primary deficiency due to lack of calcium in diet is not common. Secondary deficiency is associated with marginal calcium intake and some conditioned factors mainly the excess intake of phosphorous. Artificial diets containing cereal or grass hays, which contain little calcium and grains with high phosphorous content, may be associated with secondary calcium deficiency. Young growing animals and adult pregnant or lactating animals are on high calcium demand and are likely to suffer from hypocalcicosis if they do not get adequate calcium and balanced calcium: phosphorus ratio in the diet.


Clinical findings: Poor growth and defective teeth development are the prominent signs in young animals. Maldevelopment of teeth is characterized by gum deformity, poor development of incisors, delayed eruption and abnormal wear of permanent teeth due to defective development of dentine and enamel. Lactating ewes and lambs show profound hypocalcaemia. Fasting and exercise precipitate tetany in lactating ewes. Inappetence, stiffness, lameness, tendency of fracture of long bones, poor milk yield and difficult parturition are other sings of calcium deficiency. Secondary calcium deficiency is one of the causative factors for specific disease syndromes such as rickets, osteomalacia, osteodystrophia fibrosa of horse and pigs, and degenerative arthropathy of cattle.


Diagnosis: Specific clinical signs supported with data on serum and dietary levels of calcium and phosphorous and radiographic examination of bones are useful diagnostic tools of calcium deficiency. Dental lesions in calcium deficiency and fluorosis in sheep resemble closely and estimation of fluoride in teeth or bones or in urine is required for differential diagnosis. Bone histology, analysis of bone ash and response to dietary supplementation with calcium are also useful in confirming diagnosis of calcium deficiency.


Treatment and Prevention: Parenteral administration of calcium salts is advised for treatment of animals showing tetany. Dietary correction of calcium and phosphorous levels is necessary to overcome calcium deficiency.Adequate calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and reduction of excessive intake of phosphorous are vital for prevention of calcium deficiency. Depending on their body weight daily requirement of growing dairy cattle (heifer) is 9-26 g calcium, 7-20 g phosphorous and 300 IU vitamin D per kg dry matter. Mature lactating cows need 17-34 g calcium, 13-26 g phosphorous and 300 IU vitamin D per kg dry matter in their diet for maintenance. For each kg of milk produced, 2-3 g calcium, and 1.7-2.4 g phosphorous are added to the daily maintenance requirement. The optimum calcium:phosphorous ratio ranges within 2:1 to 1:1. Better absorption of calcium in cattle occurs at 2:1 ratio. Calcium: phosphorous ratio of 2-2.5:1 is recommended to reduce chances of hypocalcaemia without risk of urolithiasis in sheep.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 2:31:24 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis), Assignment Help, Ask Question on Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis), Get Answer, Expert's Help, Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis) Discussions

Write discussion on Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis)
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Diestrus- Estrous cycle This lasts 60 to 70 hours during which functional regression of the corpora lutea occurs. The uteri are small, anaemic, and only slightly contractile.

explain mitosis in detail

Q. What are the Symptoms of pectic ulcer? Increased gastric tone and painful hunger contraction when stomach is empty. Hunger contraction 1-3 hours after meals is the main com

A newborn baby with a patent foramen ovale or a ventricular septal defect might be cyanotic (blue). Will a two-year-old with these defects also be cyanotic? Explain your answer.

Measurement of Nitrogenase Activity There are various methods to find out whether an organism is a N 2 -fixer or not. If an organism can grow in normal atmosphere without any

What are mineral salts? Where in living beings can mineral salts are found? Mineral salts are simple inorganic substances made of metallic chemical elements, such as iron, sodi

two inorganinc salts found in the body

Why Dairy or milk product are important for human body? This first food of mammals is rich in body-building proteins and bone-forming calcium, besides being the only source of

Define Precautions for Determination of Inorganic Phosphorus? 1. All reagents should be added in the order mentioned. 2. Allow 10 minutes for the colour to develop in each t

Which of the following is not true regarding the immune response? Answer The immune response uses chemical and phagocytic cells to destroy foreign cells. Once initiated, the immune