Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis), Biology

Calcium  deficiency (hypocalcicosis)


Calcium deficiency or hypocalciosis is a sporadic condition occurring in a particular group of animals causing osteodystrophy.


Aetiology: Calcium deficiency may be primary or secondary. Primary deficiency due to lack of calcium in diet is not common. Secondary deficiency is associated with marginal calcium intake and some conditioned factors mainly the excess intake of phosphorous. Artificial diets containing cereal or grass hays, which contain little calcium and grains with high phosphorous content, may be associated with secondary calcium deficiency. Young growing animals and adult pregnant or lactating animals are on high calcium demand and are likely to suffer from hypocalcicosis if they do not get adequate calcium and balanced calcium: phosphorus ratio in the diet.


Clinical findings: Poor growth and defective teeth development are the prominent signs in young animals. Maldevelopment of teeth is characterized by gum deformity, poor development of incisors, delayed eruption and abnormal wear of permanent teeth due to defective development of dentine and enamel. Lactating ewes and lambs show profound hypocalcaemia. Fasting and exercise precipitate tetany in lactating ewes. Inappetence, stiffness, lameness, tendency of fracture of long bones, poor milk yield and difficult parturition are other sings of calcium deficiency. Secondary calcium deficiency is one of the causative factors for specific disease syndromes such as rickets, osteomalacia, osteodystrophia fibrosa of horse and pigs, and degenerative arthropathy of cattle.


Diagnosis: Specific clinical signs supported with data on serum and dietary levels of calcium and phosphorous and radiographic examination of bones are useful diagnostic tools of calcium deficiency. Dental lesions in calcium deficiency and fluorosis in sheep resemble closely and estimation of fluoride in teeth or bones or in urine is required for differential diagnosis. Bone histology, analysis of bone ash and response to dietary supplementation with calcium are also useful in confirming diagnosis of calcium deficiency.


Treatment and Prevention: Parenteral administration of calcium salts is advised for treatment of animals showing tetany. Dietary correction of calcium and phosphorous levels is necessary to overcome calcium deficiency.Adequate calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and reduction of excessive intake of phosphorous are vital for prevention of calcium deficiency. Depending on their body weight daily requirement of growing dairy cattle (heifer) is 9-26 g calcium, 7-20 g phosphorous and 300 IU vitamin D per kg dry matter. Mature lactating cows need 17-34 g calcium, 13-26 g phosphorous and 300 IU vitamin D per kg dry matter in their diet for maintenance. For each kg of milk produced, 2-3 g calcium, and 1.7-2.4 g phosphorous are added to the daily maintenance requirement. The optimum calcium:phosphorous ratio ranges within 2:1 to 1:1. Better absorption of calcium in cattle occurs at 2:1 ratio. Calcium: phosphorous ratio of 2-2.5:1 is recommended to reduce chances of hypocalcaemia without risk of urolithiasis in sheep.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 2:31:24 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis), Assignment Help, Ask Question on Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis), Get Answer, Expert's Help, Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis) Discussions

Write discussion on Deficiency diseases-calcium deficiency (hypocalcicosis)
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Mechanoreceptors - Receptors Mechanoreceptors involve those receptors involved in perception of touch, pressure, tension, hearing, vibration, gravity, muscle tension etc. Th

Different Feeding Habits Feeding habits of animals depend on the nature of the food consumed. Herbivorous : When plants are eaten. Examples - Horse, cow, rabbit, apes.

Q. DNA damaged by alkylating agents? 1. Some simple alkylating agents 2. Illustrations of products of alkylating agents 3.Many of these products can be repaired by excision rep

Q. Explain Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract? The diseases and disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Have you ever suffered from abnormal symptoms of the gastroin

Explain Implant Integrity Implant Integrity: A horizontal dark line at the abutment level is most probably due to screw-loosening and separation of elements.  This may happen

The state of balance in the internal environment of the body it includes control of the water balance of the blood, body temperature, blood sugar level and blood urea level. Each o

Q. Which kind of polarity do fat-soluble and water-soluble substances respectively have? Ans. Water-soluble substances are behave as polar molecules, i.e., they have e

Hydrarch - Ecology Its various stages are well studied in ecosystem like ponds, pools and lakes. Since pond is a fresh water ecosystem, the succession in it is also referred t

Silver point: -    Uses of silver point: ease of handing and placement, ductility, radiopacity,and have  some antibacterial activity. -    Lack of acceptable 3D seal of the ca

Anomalies Related to Oral Cavity   Under these anomalies we will briefly discuss the cleft lip and cleft palate.  You must have seen and/or nursed a baby born with a cut on