Data Redundancy-A lot of information is being repeated in the relation. For instance, the information that MCS-014 is named SSAD is repetitive, address of Rahul is "D- 27, Main road, Ranchi" is being repetitive in the first 3 records. Please search the other duplicate information. So we search that the course name, student name, address, instructor name and office number are being repeated often, thus, the table has Data Redundancy.
Please also note that each time we wish to insert a student record for a subject taken by him/her, say for instance, MCS-013, we have to insert the name of the course as well as the name and office number of its instructor. Also, every time we insert a new course we have to repeat the name and address of the student who has taken it. This replication of information results in troubles in addition to the wastage of space. Notice these problems in the STUDENT relation. What are these problems? Let us explain them.