Cystitis, Biology

Cystitis

It is the inflammation of urinary bladder characterized by frequent painful urination and presence of blood and cells in urine.

Etiology: Injury to the urinary bladder due to calculi, difficult parturition, use of contaminated catheters, late pregnancy or accumulation of urine in bladder favours bacterial contamination. Accumulation of urine may occur as sequelae to paralysis of urinary bladder followed by ascending infection usually by pus forming bacteria including E. coli and sometimes by Corynebacterium renale. This leads to inflammatory condition, pus formation and discharge through external genitalia.

Pathogenesis: Normally the bacteria which enter into the bladder are removed by passage of urine. If the bladder is injured or urine accumulates, then bacterial agents set up and proliferate in the bladder and cause inflammation. These organisms usually enter from urethra but may descend from kidney.

Clinical signs: There is moderate rise in body temperature and frequent painful urination. Urine is passed in small amounts with grunting. Abdominal pain, arching of back and kicking at belly are also evident. Urine of such animals is not clear and often mixed with blood.

Diagnosis: Microscopic examination of urine shows RBC, pus cells and epithelial cells in large numbers. Cultural examination of urine and antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolates is performed for confirmation of the disease and for quicker and better therapeutic response with the use of specific and sensitive antibiotic. The disease should be differentiated from urethral obstruction or calculi in bladder. In urethral obstruction, radiological examination can reveal obstruction and it can also be detected by passing a catheter. Rectal examination reveals fully distended bladder and urine passage is absent. Calculi in bladder can also be seen on radiological examination, and cultural examination of urine samples usually reveals negative results.

Treatment: Alkalizers are helpful in changing the urine pH from acidic to alkaline and in preventing the growth of bacterial agents. In adult ruminants, 50-100 g disodium hydrogen phosphate can be given once daily orally for 4-5 days. Urinary antiseptics like hexamine can be administered @ 4-5 g dose in large and 1-2 g in small animals once daily for 5-7 days. Broad spectrum antibiotics like streptopenicillin @ 2.5 g once daily intramuscularly for 7-10 days or sulpha and trimethoprim combination, and nitrofurantoin are also highly effective. Non-responding cases should be treated with cephalosporine, ciprofloxacin, norfloxcin or with sensitive antibiotic for 4-5 days. These animals should be given excess of water so that urine is diluted and the urinary system is flushed frequently.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:09:16 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Cystitis, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Cystitis, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Cystitis Discussions

Write discussion on Cystitis
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Classification in terms of reservoir host 1.  Anthropozoonoses: Infections transmitted from lower vertebrate to man, e.g., rabies, plague, leptospirosis, etc. 2.   Zooanthro

Non Migrainous Vascular Headaches This headache associated with dilation of the cranial arteries and can be induced by a wide variety of diseases and conditions. The most commo

We are told that every surface we touch is teeming with bacterial cells, and bacteria are found in the pools we swim in, the water we wash with, and on the hands of friends. Why ar

Q. What is the difference between taeniasis and cysticercosis? The Taeniasis is the parasitic disease caused by the adult tapeworm installed within the human intestine. The


Removal of a patient's peripheral intravenous catheter resulted in brief bleeding and the loss of a small amount of blood. Which of the following processes occurred during the form

Physical Environment and Genetic Physical Environment : Safe water and clean air, healthy workplace, safe houses, communication and roads all contribute to good health. The

Prevention of malaria No drug for malaria prevention is 100% effective. Travelers to countries that have malaria should seek prompt medical attention for febrile illness wherea

Q. Mismatch and Recombinational repair? Mismatch repair: 1. Mismatches can take place when DNA polymerase inserts wrong nucleotide during replication 2. Mismatch repair is

D esig n of expression vectors Expressing a transgene in an appropriate manner is a huge task. The gene construct that is quite active in transfected cells may be only weakl