It is the inflammation of urinary bladder characterized by frequent painful urination and presence of blood and cells in urine.
Etiology: Injury to the urinary bladder due to calculi, difficult parturition, use of contaminated catheters, late pregnancy or accumulation of urine in bladder favours bacterial contamination. Accumulation of urine may occur as sequelae to paralysis of urinary bladder followed by ascending infection usually by pus forming bacteria including E. coli and sometimes by Corynebacterium renale. This leads to inflammatory condition, pus formation and discharge through external genitalia.
Pathogenesis: Normally the bacteria which enter into the bladder are removed by passage of urine. If the bladder is injured or urine accumulates, then bacterial agents set up and proliferate in the bladder and cause inflammation. These organisms usually enter from urethra but may descend from kidney.
Clinical signs: There is moderate rise in body temperature and frequent painful urination. Urine is passed in small amounts with grunting. Abdominal pain, arching of back and kicking at belly are also evident. Urine of such animals is not clear and often mixed with blood.
Diagnosis: Microscopic examination of urine shows RBC, pus cells and epithelial cells in large numbers. Cultural examination of urine and antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolates is performed for confirmation of the disease and for quicker and better therapeutic response with the use of specific and sensitive antibiotic. The disease should be differentiated from urethral obstruction or calculi in bladder. In urethral obstruction, radiological examination can reveal obstruction and it can also be detected by passing a catheter. Rectal examination reveals fully distended bladder and urine passage is absent. Calculi in bladder can also be seen on radiological examination, and cultural examination of urine samples usually reveals negative results.
Treatment: Alkalizers are helpful in changing the urine pH from acidic to alkaline and in preventing the growth of bacterial agents. In adult ruminants, 50-100 g disodium hydrogen phosphate can be given once daily orally for 4-5 days. Urinary antiseptics like hexamine can be administered @ 4-5 g dose in large and 1-2 g in small animals once daily for 5-7 days. Broad spectrum antibiotics like streptopenicillin @ 2.5 g once daily intramuscularly for 7-10 days or sulpha and trimethoprim combination, and nitrofurantoin are also highly effective. Non-responding cases should be treated with cephalosporine, ciprofloxacin, norfloxcin or with sensitive antibiotic for 4-5 days. These animals should be given excess of water so that urine is diluted and the urinary system is flushed frequently.