Covalent bonding, Electrical Engineering

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Covalent Bonding

  1. Exhibited through the diamond lattice semiconductors.
  2. Each atom enclosed by four nearest neighbors, each comprising four electrons in the outermost orbit.
  3. Each atom shares the valence electrons of it with its four nearest neighbors.
  4. Bonding  forces  occur  from  a  quantum  mechanical  interaction  among  the  shared electrons.
  5. Both of the electrons belong to each bond, are indistinguishable, and have opposite spins.
  6. No free electrons obtainable at 0 K, though, by thermal or optical excitation, electrons can be excited out of a covalent bond and can take part in current conduction significant feature of semiconductors.

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