Standardise the following arguments, which involve counter-arguments
Some educators have argued that the increasing use of the internet by children and teenagers will have a beneficial impact on literacy levels. They write more than they did, since now rather than talking to their friends on the phone, children are emailing, or chatting online. They also read more, since rather than watching television, they are surfing the net - which essentially just involves reading. But this positive impact is unlikely, since the nature of online communication is such that it does not promote literacy. Young people may be writing more than they used to, but they not encouraged to write well. They are writing in a medium which places little importance on spelling or grammar, or even basic sentence construction. Abbreviations are used instead of common words, and emoticons are used to convey meaning which would otherwise have to be conveyed with a sensitive use of language.
2. For each of the following sentences:
(1) state the necessary and sufficient conditions
(2) paraphrase the sentence, to get an equivalent sentence which uses all instead of only , or only instead of all, and
(3) give an example of something that, if it existed, would be a counterexample to the sentence.
(i) Only dogs are hairy.
(ii) All soap sales executives keep jaguars as pets.
(iii) Skyscrapers have reinforced steel skeletons.
(iv) Towns only become famous when everyone who lives there commits suicide.
(v) None of the experimental rats learned to jump through the flaming ring.
(vi) Every rose has its thorns.
(vii) All poets are tortured, restless souls.
(ix) Every dog will have its day