Congestive heart failure (chf), Biology

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

The heart is unable to maintain circulatory equilibrium at rest and congestion of venous circuit takes place followed by dilatation of vessels, edema of lungs and enlargement of the heart. Congestive heart failure may be of either left side or right side depending on which ventricle is most affected.

Etiology: Diseases of pericardium, endocardium or myocardium in which there is interference with the blood flow cause CHF. Congenital valvular defects, valvular insufficiency or stenosis, obstruction to aortic or pulmonary valves also result in the congestive heart failure. Myocardial asthenia due to anoxia, toxemia and foot-and- mouth disease also causes this disease.

Pathogenesis: When increased load is placed for the ejection of blood from the heart or contractibility of myocardium is reduced, heart rate is increased as a compensatory mechanism. Dilatation of heart takes place to maintain the cardiac equilibrium. Cardiac reserve is reduced and the patient is not able to cope up with this load. The animal may be normal at rest but there is poor exercise tolerance. Edema develops due to increased hydrostatic pressure in the venous system. Due to anoxia there is tissue damage followed by leakage of plasma protein into the tissues. Right side failure causes involvement of kidneys and liver. Urine output is reduced due to reduced blood flow to the kidneys and plasma protein escapes in the urine. Pulmonary edema is seen in left side heart failure. However, congestive heart failure of one side leads to failure of the other side.

Clinical signs: (i) Left side congestive heart failure - There is increase in respiration and depth of respiration. Moist rales, cough, dyspnoea and cyanosis are also seen. There is murmur on auscultation of heart and heart rate is increased. (ii) Right side congestive heart failure is associated with signs of edema, anasarca, ascites or hydrothorax. There is enlargement of liver. Superficial veins are dilated while urine flow is reduced.

Diagnosis: Blood pressure is increased and the blood flows with high pressure when jugular vein is punctured. Changes in electrocardiogram are also noticed. Protein may be present in the urine. Estimation of lactose dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides and lipid profile are also valuable in its diagnosis.

Treatment: The cause of the disease may be ascertained before any treatment is given to the animal. The demand on cardiac output can be reduced by minimizing activity of the patient. If there is edema, salt should be restricted. Diuretics may be administered to reduce fluid accumulation. Venepuncture and withdrawal of 4 to 5 ml of blood/ kg body weight have been suggested as an emergency treatment in pulmonary edema. Drugs like digitalis or quabain can be administered to increase contractibility of myocardium. Dosage should be regulated according to the principle of digitalization. Paracentesis is tried for draining the fluids from the peritoneal cavity with caution that large volume of fluid should not be evacuated as it may lead to shock. 

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:06:47 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Congestive heart failure (chf), Assignment Help, Ask Question on Congestive heart failure (chf), Get Answer, Expert's Help, Congestive heart failure (chf) Discussions

Write discussion on Congestive heart failure (chf)
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Long-hair in cats is due to the recessive long-hair allele, l. Black cats (rather than tabbies) are due to the recessive agouti allele, a. A long-haired black female cat has mat

Aerotolerant anaerobes are incapable of aerobic respiration, but can nevertheless grow in the presence of air. Many lactic acid bacteria fall into this category. They can only gene

Define Precautions for Determination of Haemoglobin Content in Blood 1. Potassium cyanide is highly toxic and hence drabkin's solution should not be pippeted by mouth. 2. Dr

Explain arterial continuous mummer? Arterial Continuous Mummer : These originate in constricted arteries as in carotid or femoral artery obstruction (Mummer are louder in sys

Define Precautions - Estimation of Nitrogen and Protein Content? 1. The apparatus should be airtight to prevent leakage of NH 3 . 2. The tip of the delivery tube should be i

Explain about the Maurice Theory according to corneal transparency. Maurice Theory: The uniform collagen fibrils are arranged in regular lattice pattern separated b

Define prevention of idd by Iodized Oil? The other approach employed as a specific measure for women and children in hyper-endemic areas is injection of iodized oil. Intramuscu

List four possible after-effects of solvent abuse (glue-sniffing). Possible after-effects of solvent abuse are headache, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, runny nose, a rash round

How different are gymnosperms from bryophytes and pteridophytes? Gymnosperms are not cryptogamic as bryophytes and pteridophytes are. They are phanerogamic and so they form flo

What are the Advantages of Grains Diabetics should have more grains, beans and starchy vegetables every day. Whole-\ grain foods are nutritious and high in fiber, such as whol