Complications of Exchange Transfusion
i) Infection of umbilical vessels and systemic injection related to blood transfusion like malaria, CMV, AIDS and hepatitis B.
ii) Overloading of circulation with cardiac failure or shock following excessive deficit or rapidly performed exchange transfusion.
iii) Inadequate heating arrangements may give rise to hypothermia.
iv) Hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, acidosis and sudden caridac arrest or arrhythmia may occur during exchange transfusion with ACD blood or old blood. Acidosis may be followed by mild alkalosis as the citrate is being metabolized.
v) Hypoglycemia and bleeding manifestation may occur following exchange transfusion with heparinized blood.
vi) Oxygen toxicity may occur at a relatively lower arterial oxygen tension because adult hemoglobin (transfused blood) readily releases oxygen to the tissues by virtue of its poor affinity to kind oxygen.