COMMON ENDOCRINE DISORDERS:
We shall focus on two conditions Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes inspidus.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder of glucose intolerance caused by deficiency in insulin production and action, resulting in hyperglycemia and abnormal carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. It can be classified into three major groups Insulin Dependent (IDDM), or type I: This is characterized by catabolism and the development of ketosis in the absence of insulin replacement therapy. Its onset is typcially in childhood and adolescence but can be at any age
Non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM), or type 11: It involves resistance to insulin action and defective glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Its onset is usually after the age 40. The persons with this type of DM may or may not require daily insulin injections.
Maturity-onset Diabetes of Youth (MODY): It is transmitted as an autosomal-dominant disorder in which there is formation of structurally abnormal insulin that has decreased biologic activity
Type I, formerly called juvenile onset or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) most commonly occurs in younger children or school aged children. Type I DM affects as many as 1 in 500 children.
Type II diabetes mellitus (formerly called adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was formerly found in only about 2 per cent of cases of diabetes in children and adolescents. This is rapidly changing, and occurrence of Type II diabetes is increasing among adolscents.