Coevolution of prey-predators, Biology

Predation is a process by which one organism (predator) eats another organism (prey). If the prey population is abundant, the predator population also becomes abundant. If the predators are abundant and efficient, there will be a reduction in the abundance of the prey population. Prey-predator relationships can be visualised as a game in which each player tries to outwit the other. If you consider the prey population, only individuals better adapted to escape predation would survive and reproduce. So in a prey-predator population with varying degrees of efficiency (the variations are genetically determined), the prey species evolve at the avoidance of the predator and the predator species evolves towards maintaining predation and making it more efficient. Such a coevolution of the predator-prey relationship may continue indefinitely over long periods without causing extinction of both the species.

This is achieved by improving the efficiency of the predator and the resistance of the prey in a balanced way. Natural selection aims at a faster improvement of the efficiency of an inefficient predator than the resistance in an already resistant prey. But in a vulnerable victim, the resistance is evolved faster than the efficiency of an already efficient predator. Such balancing acts by natural selection do not allow any one of the two species to win the race.

There are several examples of natural selection having produced complex adaptations as a consequence of long term evolutionary process. These adaptations manifest themselves both among the predators and prey organisms. Examples among the predators are: the long and slimy tongue and the accurate aim of insectivorous lizards; the elaborate webs of the spiders; the social hunting behaviour of the lions. Cryptic toloration, fleetness, noxious substances and toxins, alarm calls and posting of sentinels can be cited as instances of adaptations evolved by prey organisms as defensive measures.

Posted Date: 4/5/2013 6:12:26 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Coevolution of prey-predators, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Coevolution of prey-predators, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Coevolution of prey-predators Discussions

Write discussion on Coevolution of prey-predators
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Explain the Ecosystems? The ecosystem is yet another level, or ecological unit, studied by ecologists. An ecosystem encompasses all of the organisms (all the populations-the en

Describe the Phylum Echinodermata in details? The Phylum Echinodermata takes its name from two words of Greek origin: "echino," ; which means "prickle" or "spine," and "derma,"

In studies of human body, which of the below terms is used to describe the first step in production of urine? Is it: a) Tubular reabsorption b) Tubular secretion c) Glome

Q. What is the chemical equation of photosynthesis? The chemical equation of photosynthesis is given below: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + light --> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

Potassium (K) - Macronutrients The main source of K + for plants comes from withering of K containing minerals. Potassium released by withering dissolves in the soil solution

what is a homologous chromosome

Explain about the term - paediatric neuropsychologist In the evaluation of infants and young children, all sources of reliable and valid data available to the paediatric neurop

Q. What are the two major ions that participate in the electrical impulse transmission in neurons? The two major ions that participate in the electrical impulse transmission in

How dissimilar are the endosperm of gymnosperms and the endosperm of angiosperms? In the gymnosperms the endosperm is haploid (n), it is called as primary endosperm. In the ang

What is the main evolutionary novelty presented by annelids? The main evolutionary novelty shown by the beings of the phylum Annelida is the coelom, the internal body cavity to