Coevolution of plant-herbivores, Biology

There has been a perfect coevolution between plants and herbivorous animals. This has often developed into a mutually beneficial relationship. Whereas the plants have proved to be a good source of food for animals such as insects, birds and certain mammals, these animals in turn have been of great help to plants for dispersal of pollen and seeds. More specifically plants offer insects both nectar and pollen as food and insects in turn have developed olfactory, visual and structural adaptations for pollination as well as for seed dispersal. To attract pollinators, flowers have attractive colours and smell sweet as well. It is interesting to note that certain flies are attracted towards bad odours emanated by substances such as putrescin and cadaverine. The relationship developed between insect pollinators and entomophilous plants is an excellent example of coevolutionary process. Several instances involving insect pollinators and plants belonging to the families Malvaceae, Papilionacea and Labiatae could be cited. One study related to the gcnus Pedicularis (louse wort) and its pollinators, the bumble bee (Bombus) stands out. Certain species of louse wort such as P. canadensis and P. crenulata are pollinated nototribically, which means that bumble bees pick up the pollen grains from the plant on iheir notum (the dorsal 'sclerite of the insect). The insects get a generous brushing on their dorsal side from the stamens of the flowers as shown and on their visit to a next flower deposit the pollen on the stigma. Certain other species such as P. groenlandia pollinate sternotribically which means that the pollen is picked up by insects on their sternum (ventral selerites of insects) as depicted in Fig and then transferred to the stigma of the flower. What is to be appreciated in the coevolutionary process is the close correspondence between the structure of the flower and the structure and behaviour of insects involved.

Posted Date: 4/5/2013 6:15:02 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Coevolution of plant-herbivores, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Coevolution of plant-herbivores, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Coevolution of plant-herbivores Discussions

Write discussion on Coevolution of plant-herbivores
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Q. What is the relationship between enzyme and vitamins cofactors? Many vitamins are enzyme cofactors that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be acquired from the d


Bacteriophage is a virus which infects a bacterium and which is many times used in molecular genetics experiments as the vector, or cloning vehicle. Recombinant phages can be made

According to the theory of natural selection, what factor below contributed to the current variations in beak sizes of finch species on the Galapagos Islands? a. Finches dispersed

Explain the introduction of history of mart disease? Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) are the leading causes of death and disability both in the developed and the developing na

Q. What is represented by the cellular secretion? Cell secretion is the removal to the exterior of substances produced by the cell for instance, hormones, mucus, and sweat, so

Mention the information that the health workers get by measuring BOD of a water Body. a) Name the enzyme included in the continuous replication of DNA strand. Mention the Polar

How would you design, in principle, an experiment to test the hypothesis that a certain variety of lettuce seed needed daylight in order to germinate?  You would need as large

What is the valve that separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery? Why is that valve significant? The valve that divides the right ventricle and the base of the p

Q. What is biological control? The Biological control is a natural method to control the size of microorganism, animal or plant populations. The Biological control is based on