Classified Catalogue Code:
Ranganathan (Shiyali Ramamrita) (1892-1972). Classified Catalogue Code with Additional Rules for Dictionary Catalogue Code. Ed 5. Assisted by A Neelameghan.
The first edition appeared in 1934 and was continued through five editions, the last (i.e., the 5th edition) coming in 1964. Each later edition was an improvement on the earlier one, the revision, addition or improvement made on the basis of practical application and critical examination supported by teaching and reasoning. This empirical, analytical and critical approach shaped the code progressively.
The second edition (1945) demonstrated the symbiotic relationship between classification and cataloging and evolved chain procedure for subject cataloguing/indexing. Rules for style of writing and alphabetisation correlating the two through Gestalt theory of alphabetisation were other added features of this edition. Ranganathan's comparative study of classified and dictionary, catalogues and evaluation of Cutter's rules helped him publish his Dictionary Catalogue Code in 1945.
The third edition (1951) added rules for compiling union catalogue of periodical publications, abstracting periodical and incorporating as well, a glossary of English Sanskrit terms to be helpful for developing cognate terminology in other Indian languages.
The fourth edition (1955) implemented the lay-out for a catalogue code (in the light of Heading and Canons), added supplementary rules for national bibliography, rearranged the rules for determination of authorship, choice of heading and rendering the heading. It also incorporated further additional rules for style of writing effecting corresponding changes in the rules for alphabetisation. This edition, as a result of his comparative study of five codes (Heading and Canons published in 1955) made necessary further corrections and alterations which eliminated the need for a separate dictionary catalogue code.
The fifth edition (1964) included new chapters on Law of parsimony, physical form, centralized cataloguing, homonyms in class index entries and feature headings, and non-conventional documents. Typographical and other simple errors were corrected, a little rewording was done and better examples were added.
While the codes for alphabetical, author and dictionary catalogues are quite large in number, the codes oriented to classified catalogue are few in number.Ranganathan's Classified Catalogue code (CCC) is one prominent code of these few. After Cutter's rules and Vatican code, the CCC is the only other code which is complete to cover all the cataloguing procedures and to provide rules for entry, description, subject cataloguing/indexing and filing.
Before Ranganathan, there were no catalogue codes ever produced In India. Neither was there an established bibliographic/cataloguing tradition. The code (CCC) is the first and the only code designed in India. It was mostly an intuitive effort but applying scientific method to ensure precision and correctness. This however, does not go to say that the code was entirely a product of prestine mind. Ranganathan, educated in England had the benefit of exposure to western thought and practice, which definitely provided the needed background to work out independently. There are, therefore, many influences. Yet the code is distinctively Ranganathan's own. What is his own adds to the merit, and what is not to its weakness.
Structurally, it is a well laid code. The code can be divided into three units. The first 9 parts/ chapters (A to H and D form the approach. Many basic issues, more importantly, canons and normative principles; parts and physical forms of catalogue, centralised cataloguing; recording, style, language and script, arrangement of entries; conflict of authorship and resolution (determination of authorship); name of person, (i.e., structure, element, etc.) are dealt with. Chapters (K to N, P to V) constitute the substantial part, i.e., rules for rendering names (persons, corporate bodies, geographical entities); preparation of class Index entries; main and book index entries for different categories of books and periodicals; additional rules for compilation of union catalogues of books and periodical publications; National bibliography; indexing periodical; abstracting periodical; and cataloguing of incunabula and non-book materials. The last part (W) constitutes end matter (glossary of terms, bibliographic references and index).
The rules are marked for their simplicity, clarity and brevity. The code draws a distinction between a library catalogue and a bibliography. Elaborate description is a necessity in bibliography and not in a library catalogue. Therefore, CCC does not prescribe recording of imprint, collation, many details in notes, statement of responsibility in the title section, etc. The rules for determining authorship are based on a set of problems explained as conflicts of authorship.
The rules relating to rendering of names/headings for persons, corporate bodies and geographic entities are based on language, nationality and cultural preferences which are postulated through principles. The empirical approach and application of normative principles in drafting and arranging the rules have CCC a model code. The fact that it does not cover the entire range of various types of material makes it a less comprehensive code. No code can be perfect in all details. CCC is no exception. It needs revision and rethinking so as to capture and respond to the many changes that have come about after its publication in 1964.