a. If a password to a cipher is exactly 8 characters long, and each character can be selected from [0-9], [a-z], and [A-Z], how many different passwords are possible?
b. Suppose a system requires passwords be 8 characters long, include at least one capital letter, at least one digit and at least one character from the set of 5 special characters { !,#,%,&,*} . What advantage does this provide an attacker who is trying to guess a password?