Central Cell - Synergids
It is the largest cell of the embryo sac, and the mother cell of the endosperm. The enlargement of the embryo sac after the last nuclear division is mainly due to the inflation of the large central vacuole of the central cell. The vacuole in the central cell is presumably the reservoir of sugars, amino acids and inorganic salts. The nuclei of the central cell, also called the polar nuclei, are very large, and are characterized by a conspicuous nucleolus. They are present either in the centre of the cell, suspended by cytoplasmic strands, or in the cytoplasm close to the egg apparatus. In the latter case the chalazal portion of the embryo sac is occupied by a large vacuole. The two polar nuclei fuse before or during double fertilization to form the secondary nucleus.
The cytoplasm of the central cell is rich in plastids, mitochondria, numerous, dictyosomes, and ribosomes or small polysomes. This cell appears to be the centre of intensive synthetic activity in the embryo sac. The thickness of the central cell wall is variable. It is thickest in the regions in contact with the nucellus. Where the central cell touches the egg and synergids, it shows the common feature of partial wall. It becomes thinner towards the chalazal end of the egg apparatus, and finally, in the chalazal region there is no wall between the plasma membranes of the central cell and those of the egg and the synergids. The central cell is connected along with the.egg, synergids, and the antipodals through plasmodesmata connections.