With the increase in the number of readers using libraries, it became necessary to devise some method of identifying both the book and the borrower. Thus the two card system, one card for the book and one for the borrower came into existence. First, identification cards were used, which were later substituted by borrower's card on which all book transactions were entered.Of the two card systems, two systems, namely the Browne and the Newark are popular and widely used even today in libraries,
We will discuss briefly these two systems.
i) Browne system: Towards the end of the 19th century, Nina E. Browne devised a charging system which used pockets or envelopes for each borrower instead of cards. When a book was to be charged, the book-card was removed and placed in the borrower's pocket which bore the borrower's name, address and registration number. These borrower's pockets, each containing one book card were then filed under the date either by call number, author or title of the book under circulation. This system involved only a single operation to make books available. Although considered to be notable advance over the temporary and permanent slip system, it had one shortcoming there was no permanent record of the loan.
ii) Newark system: Around the turn of the century (about 1900) a new system came into use, which utilised the borrower's card and book card to the best advantage. This new system was adapted by the Newark (New Jersey) Public Library, and soon became popular. The simplicity and flexibility of this system made it adaptable to both small and large public libraries. Its positive attributes include accurate files, conveniently located at the circulation desk by patron's name, due date and call number. It can also generate accurate statistical reports and accommodate different loan periods. The main disadvantages are the labour intensive nature of the operations: It set the stage for associating patron information to items through the loan transaction and the eventual use of transaction numbers.